Overbygård og Nørre Fjand. En analyse af nogle jernalderlandsbyers tilliggender og økonomi


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Title Overbygård og Nørre Fjand. En analyse af nogle jernalderlandsbyers tilliggender og økonomi
Overbygård and Nørre Fjand
Creator Lewis, Bodil
Crabb, Peter
Subject Overbygård
Nørre Fjand
Nørre Fjand
iron age settlement
Overbygård and Nørre Fjand
This investigation aims at showing the connection between the size of the Roman Iron Age settlements at Overbygård and Nr. Fjand and the land-use areas. The archaeological part of the investigation is based on the publication of Nr. Fjand and the published data from Overbygård. The geographical part is based on a soil-value registration of 1844.
The soil value registration of 1844
A pedological report indicates the agreement of the values above 4 in the 1844 registration with new assessments. Values below 4 do not always reflect the soil value, since the areas involved were in many cases used, and thus valued as commons. The report concludes that the registration for soil values above 4 yields reliable information, while for values below 4, it must be analysed whether these values relate to useless soils or to areas used as commons.
An investigation of soil factors showed that there are edaptric factors that have not changed to any great extent since the Iron Age: first and foremost the water capacity and to some extent the thickness of the humus layer. Also the main consequence of variable factors brought to light, especially with regard to the chemical characteristics, is that the soil close to existing villages is slightly too high.
As there are crucial factors in the soil that have not changed, and as the 1844 registration is a reliable measure of the reality it represented, there must be possibilities of using this source in a prehistoric connection, too.
From the published articles, the size of the Overbygård settlement can be deduced to be 10 farmsteads over a longer period (Fig. 2). An extraordinary grain find showed whole heads of grain of 10 to 12-fold.
The geographical investigation showed the area to consist of 6 moraine hills situated on a flat, ancient sea-bed (Fig. 3). The likely fall of the coastline was found to be 5 feet (3.10 m). As the 6 hills could be suitable for settlement, the area was divided between these possible settlements to find the likely land-use area for the Overbygård site (Fig. 6). An analysis of the figures from the 1844 registration points at areas I and II as the maximum agricultural areas (Fig. 7). These areas have been measured to 79.52 ha. The average soil value has been calculated, soil value x area = 8,8. From a 1902 investigation of the connection between soil values and grain fold, fig. 1, the grain fold is seen to be 11.5, and the potential of production is calculated, ha x grain fold= 914.48.
The whole land-use area is measured to 679 ha, meaning that the site at Overbygård had a land-use area of 600 ha meadow and a potential of production of 914.48 from 79 ha.
Comparing the archaeological and the geographical results, it is noticed that the grain fold actually found at the site and the calculated grain fold value agree, from which it may be concluded that the 1844 registration is a useful source also in a prehistoric connection. With a settlement size of 10 farmsteads, the investigation shows an agricultural area size of 8 ha per farmstead, corresponding to a potential of production of 91.45, and an average of 60 ha meadow.
The Roman Iron Age houses can according to the publication, be placed in 10 groups (Fig. 10). One group is shown to relate to a late phase of the Roman Iron Age (B), and one is shown to have existed only at the beginning of the period (G) (Fig. 11). The rest are shown to represent longer existing houses. Half of these are long dwelling houses (Fig. 14), most of them with a possible byre, and the rest are short houses, possibly related to the dwelling houses. This interpretation is supported, e.g. several ditches which are not part of the house constructions and point to the existence of fences possibly like the ones known from the Iron Age Settlement at Hodde. As the house groups seem to be stable during the investigation period, the known part of the Nr. Fjand site must be interpreted as consisting of 3-4 farmsteads. As the whole village is assumed to be twice this size, the expected size of the Roman Iron Age site in Nr. Fjand is 6-8 farmsteads, most of these with a possible byre.
The geographical investigation shows the Nr. Fjand area to consist of 2 hills in an old sea-bed area (Fig. 17). The investigation proceeds as in Overbygård, showing a land-use area of 556 ha. (Fig. 18). The agricultural area consists of max. 60 ha. (Figs. 19 & 21) with an average soil value of 9.6 which corresponds to a grain fold value of 12 and a potential of production at 739.32. The flat beach areas exposed to floods detract from the value of part of the meadow area. The meadow area, therefore, is divided into 251 ha. stable meadow and 184 ha. of lesser value.
A comparison between the archaeological and geographical evidence indicates that the agricultural area is sufficient for 8 farmsteads, showing an average production potential of 92.42 per farmstead. The stable meadow area is sufficient for 4 farmsteads, and including the lesser-valued meadows is sufficient for 7 farmsteads, which makes the number of likely farmsteads 5-6. As there are plenty of fishing utensils found at the site, and as the site is situated close to the Nissum Fjord, the economic background of the remaining 2-3 farmsteads must be accounted for by fishing instead of cattle breeding.
Thus the investigation showed an average size per farmstead of 60 ha meadow and a potential of 91, 45 -at these sites corresponding to slightly below 8 ha agricultural area. The Nr. Fjand site with 8 farmsteads -5-6 likely with a byre- is shown to be a variation of the Overbygård site -with 10 farmsteads- in that fishing compensates for the missing cattle-breeding opportunities at Nr. Fjand. This can also be seen in the way the site is situated, with the Nissum Fjord to compensate for the good meadows at Overbygård. The investigation showed an average size of 60 ha meadow per farmstead and the production potential to be 91.45.
Bodil Lewis
Publisher Jysk Arkæologisk Selskab
Date 1985-10-08
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Format application/pdf
Identifier https://tidsskrift.dk/kuml/article/view/109703
Source Kuml; Årg. 33 Nr. 33 (1985): Kuml 1985; 123-163
Kuml; Vol 33 No 33 (1985): Kuml 1985; 123-163
Language dan
Relation https://tidsskrift.dk/kuml/article/view/109703/159037

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