“Je pense, donc je pense l’autre”: Cervantes and Borges in the context of Derrida

Verba Hispanica

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Title “Je pense, donc je pense l’autre”: Cervantes and Borges in the context of Derrida
«Je pense, donc je pense l’autre»: Cervantes y Borges en el contexto derridiano
«Je pense, donc je pense l’autre»: Cervantes in Borges v kontekstu Derridaja
 
Creator Veljović, Jelica
 
Subject hospitality
otherness
Cervantes
Borges
Derrida
hospitalidad
otredad
Cervantes
Borges
Derrida
gostoljubje
drugost
Cervantes
Borges
Derrida
 
Description This contribution seeks to explore in a literary context Jacques Derrida’s hypothesis on the interrelationship of the Self and the Other expounded in his book Of Hospitality and Politics of Friendship, this work tends to investigate the features of Otherness in relation to the Selfhood in literary context. These features will be investigated through analysis the presence and emergence of the Other in Cervantes’s Don Quixote of the Mancha and in Borges’ fantastic short stories The Other and The House of Asterion and outline the modes of the deconstruction and recreation of the Self, whose identity is being interrupted and recreated by the Other. We have identified three types of the Other that in these works which appear to have a function of deconstructing and reconstructing Self. These are the Other as signal of the linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity of Spain in the Cervantes’s Don Quixote; the Other as a reflection of the Selfhood from both the past and the future at once, with the autofictional reference in the Borges’s story The Other; the Other as a monster in Borges’s story The House of Asterion, who is converted and liberated by his own hostile guest, Theseus. The disruptions in the identity of the Self caused by the intrusion of the Other are thus revealed to be vital and constitutive, demonstrating that the Other is an inherent part of the Self. In this way, in the work of Cervantes and Borges it is possible to detect a change in the traditional conception of the Self and identity, a Derridean deconstruction of the Cartesian motto as “I think, therefore I am the Other”.
La humanidad del siglo XX está marcada por algunos significantes cambios de rumbo, respeto al manejo de nociones ontológicas y fenomenológicas básicas como razón, conocimiento, objeto/sujeto, cultura, contorno sociológico, arte y ciencia. Este cambio de rumbo lo encontramos influenciado en gran medida por los grandes cambios históricos (las Guerras Mundiales, nuevos estados, formación de nuevos sistemas económicos, ideológicos y políticos) y teóricos, teniendo especialmente en cuenta la nueva teoría francesa en el campo de las ciencias sociales y humanas. Michel Foucault, en la famosa obra Las palabras y las cosas proclama la muerte del hombre, refiriéndose a la muerte del pensamiento occidental y a la caída de un proyecto ilustrado y racionalista dirigido a entender, formar y dirigir al hombre y a la humanidad. Partiendo de la filosofía de Nietzche y Kierkegaard, Foucault (1971: 359, 423) subraya que el humanismo ilustrador, habiéndose desarrollado a partir del siglo XVIII hasta nuestros días, privilegió al hombre en su espíritu racional como amo del todo el mundo natural. Sin embargo, olvidándose de las fuerzas irracionales, emocionales y naturales, sustituyendo al Dios en su trono, se aprovechó de su poder omnipotente para hacerse trampa a sí mismo, estallando guerras, estableciendo nuevas jerarquías sociales, y abriendo nuevas brechas sociales.
Avtorica prispevka poskuša na podlagi Derridajevih hipotez o odnosih med Jazom in Drugim v delih »O gostoljubju« in »Politike prijateljstva« raziskati poteze drugosti v povezavi z Jazom v literarnem kontekstu. Te poteze išče s pomočjo analize prisotnosti in podobe Drugega v romanu El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha Miguela de Cervantesa in v fantastičnih kratkih zgodbah El Otro in La casa de Asterión Jorgeja Luisa Borgesa. Temeljni cilj prispevka je predstaviti načine dekonstrukcije Jaza, katerega identiteto pretrga in poustvari Drugi. Na tej ravni so se oblikovali trije tipi Drugega, ki imajo v omenjenih delih funkcijo dekonstrukcije in ponovne izgradnje enotnosti Jaza: Drugi, ki kaže na jezikovno, etnično in kulturno raznolikost Španije v Cervantesovem Don Kihotu; Drugi kot odsevanje Jaza iz preteklosti in prihodnosti hkrati, z avtofikcijsko referenco na Borgesa v zgodbi El otro; Drugi kot pošast v zgodbi La casa de Asterión, ki ga spreobrne in osvobodi njegov sovražni gost Tezej. Diskontinuiteta identitete, ki jo povzročajo posegi Drugega, se izkaže za vitalno in ustanovno ter razkriva, da je Drugi neločljiv element Jaza. Tako v Cervantesovem kot v Borgesovem delu je mogoče opaziti spremembo tradicionalnega pogleda na Jaz in njegovo identiteto, povezuje pa se s kartezijanskim rekom, kakor ga je rekonstruiral Derrida: »Mislim, torej mislim drugega.«
 
Publisher Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakulte / Ljubljana University Press, Faculty of Arts
 
Date 2017-12-08
 
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
 
Format application/pdf
 
Identifier https://revije.ff.uni-lj.si/VerbaHispanica/article/view/7612
10.4312/vh.25.1.323-337
 
Source Verba Hispanica; Vol 25 No 1 (2017); 323-337
Verba Hispanica; Vol. 25 Núm. 1 (2017); 323-337
Verba Hispanica; L. 25 Št. 1 (2017); 323-337
2350-4250
0353-9660
10.4312/vh.25.1
 
Language spa
 
Relation https://revije.ff.uni-lj.si/VerbaHispanica/article/view/7612/7248
 
Rights Copyright (c) 2017 Jelica Veljović
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0
 

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