The Idea of Supreme Peace (Taiping) in Premodern Chinese Philosophies of History

Asian Studies

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Title The Idea of Supreme Peace (Taiping) in Premodern Chinese Philosophies of History
Ideja velikega miru (taiping) v zgodovini predmodernih kitajskih filozofij
 
Creator Rogacz, Dawid
 
Subject taiping
Supreme Peace
Han philosophy
millenarianism
New Text Confucianism
taiping
veliki mir
filozofija dinastije Han
milenarizem
novi teksti konfucianizma
 
Description The paper examines the development of the idea of Supreme Peace (taiping 太平) in premodern Chinese philosophies of history. It is shown that while Daoists identified it with the pristine unity of humans and nature, Han Confucians equated Supreme Peace with the harmonious social system under the rule of one of the first Chinese emperors or Confucius. In the latter case, the notion of taiping was reduced to a descriptive category, which was then employed by historiography but ridiculed in the critical thought of Wang Chong. With Huainanzi and the Xiang’er commentary to Laozi, the Daoists started to argue that it is possible to restore the Supreme Peace under new historical conditions. This was systematically developed in the Scripture of Supreme Peace (Taipingjing), which offered a detailed depiction of the future era of equality and freedom. However, after this radicalization, the idea of taiping was utilized by imperial propaganda and disappeared from the dominant philosophical discourse. An exception to this rule was Li Gou (1009–1059), who envisaged Supreme Peace as an ideal socio-economic system resulting from endowing peasants with land and money. A similar vision was expressed by Gong Zizhen (1792–1841), for whom Supreme Peace had to entail land equalization and the reduction of social inequalities. Similarly to Taipingjing, however, Gong Zizhen described taiping as the culmination point of the increase of human knowledge. With such an approach, the premodern Chinese views of Supreme Peace became noticeably close to Western progressivism, and therefore inspired the utopian project of Kang Youwei.
Članek proučuje razvoj ideje velikega miru (taiping 太平) v zgodovini predmodernih kitajskih filozofij. Medtem ko so daoisti idejo velikega miru povezovali s pristno enotnostjo človeka in narave, so jo konfucijanci iz dinastije Han enačili s harmoničnim družbenim sistemom pod vlado enega izmed prvih kitajskih cesarjev ali Konfucija. Pri tem je bil pomen velikega miru zreduciran na deskriptivno kategorijo, sicer uporabljeno v zgodovinopisju, ki pa jo je kritični mislec Wang Chong zasmehoval. V knjigi Huainanzi in Komentarjih Xiang’er h knjigi Laozija so daoisti začeli trditi, da je mogoče idejo velikega miru ponovno oživiti v novih zgodovinskih okoliščinah. To so nadalje sistematično razvili v knjigi Klasik velikega miru (Taipingjing), v kateri so podali podroben opis prihodnje dobe enakosti in svobode. Vendar je po tej radikalizaciji ideja velikega miru pristala v rokah cesarske propagande in s tem izginila iz prevladujočega filozofskega diskurza. Izjema je bil Li Gou (1009–1059), ki si je idejo velikega miru zamislil kot idealen družbeno-ekonomski sistem, v katerem kmetje dobijo zemljo in denar. Podobno vizijo je imel tudi Gong Zizhen (1792–1841), ki je menil, da mora veliki mir voditi v enakost zemljišč in zmanjševanje družbenih neenakosti. Veliki mir je opisal kot vrhunec povečanja človeškega znanja, s tem pristopom pa se je predmoderni kitajski pogled na veliki mir opazno približal zahodnemu progresivizmu, zaradi česar je navdihnil utopični projekt Kang Youweija.
 
Publisher Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakulte / Ljubljana University Press, Faculty of Arts
 
Date 2022-01-19
 
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
 
Format application/pdf
 
Identifier https://revije.ff.uni-lj.si/as/article/view/10305
10.4312/as.2022.10.1.401-424
 
Source Asian Studies; Vol. 10 No. 1 (2022): Special Issue: Crisis as Danger and Hope—Covid-19 in Asia; 401-424
Azijske študije; Letn. 10 Št. 1 (2022): Special Issue: Crisis as Danger and Hope—Covid-19 in Asia; 401-424
2350-4226
2232-5131
10.4312/as.2022.10.1
 
Language eng
 
Relation https://revije.ff.uni-lj.si/as/article/view/10305/10047
 
Rights Copyright (c) 2022 Dawid ROGACZ
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0
 

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