Neuromodulatory effects and targets of the SCFAs and gasotransmitters produced by the human symbiotic microbiota

Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease

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Title Neuromodulatory effects and targets of the SCFAs and gasotransmitters produced by the human symbiotic microbiota
 
Creator Oleskin, Alexander V.
Shenderov, Boris A.
 
Subject
 
Description The symbiotic gut microbiota plays an important role in the development and homeostasis of the host organism. Its physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and communicative effects are mediated by multiple low molecular weight compounds. Recent data on small molecules produced by gut microbiota in mammalian organisms demonstrate the paramount importance of these biologically active molecules in terms of biology and medicine. Many of these molecules are pleiotropic mediators exerting effects on various tissues and organs. This review is focused on the functional roles of gaseous molecules that perform neuromediator and/or endocrine functions. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of microbial fermentation-derived gaseous metabolites are not well understood. It is possible that these metabolites produce their effects via immunological, biochemical, and neuroendocrine mechanisms that involve endogenous and microbial modulators and transmitters; of considerable importance are also changes in epigenetic transcriptional factors, protein post-translational modification, lipid and mitochondrial metabolism, redox signaling, and ion channel/gap junction/transporter regulation. Recent findings have revealed that interactivity among such modulators/transmitters is a prerequisite for the ongoing dialog between microbial cells and host cells, including neurons. Using simple reliable methods for the detection and measurement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and small gaseous molecules in eukaryotic tissues and prokaryotic cells, selective inhibitors of enzymes that participate in their synthesis, as well as safe chemical and microbial donors of pleiotropic mediators and modulators of host intestinal microbial ecology, should enable us to apply these chemicals as novel therapeutics and medical research tools.Keywords: short-chain fatty acids; gasotransmitters; nitric oxide; carbon monoxide; hydrogen sulfide; ammonia; microbiome; neurotransmitter; neuromediator(Published: 5 July 2016)Citation: Microbial Ecology in Health & Disease 2016, 27: 30971 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/mehd.v27.30971
 
Publisher Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
 
Contributor
 
Date 2016-07-05
 
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

 
Format application/pdf
text/html
application/epub+zip
application/xml
 
Identifier http://www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/view/30971
10.3402/mehd.v27.30971
 
Source Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease; Vol 27 (2016)
1651-2235
 
Language eng
 
Relation http://www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/view/30971/47706
http://www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/view/30971/47707
http://www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/view/30971/47708
http://www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/view/30971/47709
 
Rights Copyright (c) 2016 Boris Arkadievich Shenderov
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0
 

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