Gastrointestinal dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder: the role of the mitochondria and the enteric microbiome

Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease

View Publication Info
 
 
Field Value
 
Title Gastrointestinal dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder: the role of the mitochondria and the enteric microbiome
 
Creator Frye, Richard E.; Autism Research Program, Arkansas Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR and Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR
Rose, Shannon
Slattery, John
MacFabe, Derrick F.
 
Subject autism spectrum disorders; Clostridia spp.; electron transport chain; enteric bacteria; fatty acid metabolism; gastrointestinal; mitochondrial dysfunction; oxidative stress; propionic acid; short-chain fatty acids
 
Description Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects a significant number of individuals worldwide with the prevalence continuing to grow. It is becoming clear that a large subgroup of individuals with ASD demonstrate abnormalities in mitochondrial function as well as gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Interestingly, GI disturbances are common in individuals with mitochondrial disorders and have been reported to be highly prevalent in individuals with co-occurring ASD and mitochondrial disease. The majority of individuals with ASD and mitochondrial disorders do not manifest a primary genetic mutation, raising the possibility that their mitochondrial disorder is acquired or, at least, results from a combination of genetic susceptibility interacting with a wide range of environmental triggers. Mitochondria are very sensitive to both endogenous and exogenous environmental stressors such as toxicants, iatrogenic medications, immune activation, and metabolic disturbances. Many of these same environmental stressors have been associated with ASD, suggesting that the mitochondria could be the biological link between environmental stressors and neurometabolic abnormalities associated with ASD. This paper reviews the possible links between GI abnormalities, mitochondria, and ASD. First, we review the link between GI symptoms and abnormalities in mitochondrial function. Second, we review the evidence supporting the notion that environmental stressors linked to ASD can also adversely affect both mitochondria and GI function. Third, we review the evidence that enteric bacteria that are overrepresented in children with ASD, particularly Clostridia spp., produce short-chain fatty acid metabolites that are potentially toxic to the mitochondria. We provide an example of this gut–brain connection by highlighting the propionic acid rodent model of ASD and the clinical evidence that supports this animal model. Lastly, we discuss the potential therapeutic approaches that could be helpful for GI symptoms in ASD and mitochondrial disorders. To this end, this review aims to help better understand the underlying pathophysiology associated with ASD that may be related to concurrent mitochondrial and GI dysfunction.Keywords: autism spectrum disorders; Clostridia spp.; electron transport chain; enteric bacteria; fatty acid metabolism; gastrointestinal; mitochondrial dysfunction; oxidative stress; propionic acid; short-chain fatty acids(Published: 7 May 2015)Citation: Microbial Ecology in Health & Disease 2015, 26: 27458 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/mehd.v26.27458
 
Publisher Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
 
Contributor
 
Date 2015-05-07
 
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

 
Format application/pdf
text/html
application/epub+zip
application/xml
 
Identifier http://www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/view/27458
10.3402/mehd.v26.27458
 
Source Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease; Vol 26 (2015)
1651-2235
 
Language eng
 
Relation http://www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/view/27458/39921
http://www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/view/27458/39922
http://www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/view/27458/39923
http://www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/view/27458/39924
http://www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/downloadSuppFile/27458/18935
 
Rights Copyright (c) 2015 Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0
 

Contact Us

The PKP Index is an initiative of the Public Knowledge Project.

For PKP Publishing Services please use the PKP|PS contact form.

For support with PKP software we encourage users to consult our wiki for documentation and search our support forums.

For any other correspondence feel free to contact us using the PKP contact form.

Find Us

Twitter

Copyright © 2015-2018 Simon Fraser University Library