Co-ocurrence of two toxic dinoflagellates in Acapulco Bay, Guerrero, Mexico: an opportunity to quantify their biology and ecology

Acta Botanica Mexicana

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Title Co-ocurrence of two toxic dinoflagellates in Acapulco Bay, Guerrero, Mexico: an opportunity to quantify their biology and ecology
Co-ocurrence of two toxic dinoflagellates in Acapulco Bay, Gro., Mexico: An opportunity to quantify their biology and ecology
 
Creator Meave del Castillo, María Esther
Zamudio-Reséndiz, María Eugenia
Castillo-Rivera, Manuel Arnoldo
Gutiérrez-Mendieta, Francisco José
Varona-Cordero, Francisco
Hernández-Cárdenas, Gilberto
 
Subject
ENSO, Gymnodinium catentum, HAB, Mexican tropical Pacific, morphometry, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum.
 
Description Abstract:Background and Aims: Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) commonly occur in the Mexican Pacific, being important HABs of Gymnodinium catenatum (Gc) and of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum (Pbc) for being saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellates that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning. The latter is a taxon that sporadically occurs in the tropical Mexican Pacific. This study describes the behavior of both taxa throughout the annual cycle and analyzes their morphology, abundance, distribution, and their bloom dynamics, in relation to environmental and climatological parameters.Methods: Phytoplankton collections were made ten times from October 2009 to January 2011 within Acapulco Bay and its surroundings, together with measurements of physicochemical parameters. Climatic data were obtained from Acapulco weather station. Abundance of phytoplankton was evaluated with the Utermöhl method. Statistical analyses were carried out to investigate the relationship of Gc and Pbc abundances with environmental and climatic parameters. Key results: Gc was present throughout the year 2010 in low densities and in November 2010 it reached a maximum of 189×103 cells l-1, associated with several species of diatoms and dinoflagellates, including Pbc. Gc bloom coincided with decrease in ammonium and decrease in water temperature with respect to the average. Pyrodinium bahamense morphometry from Acapulco corresponds to var. compressum. Pbc formed an intense HAB in July 2010 (reaching a maximum abundance of 773×103 cells l-1), causing significant toxicity and had an upturn in November. Conclusions: Pbc HABs in Acapulco require the occurrence of a previous HAB in the central Pacific or Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico, horizontal transportation of their cysts, as well as high water temperature conditions, abundant rainfall that increased the concentration of phosphates, which is propitiated in the periods of transition El Niñoˮ-La Niñaˮ events. Gc HABs in Acapulco are related to “La Niña” events, with an abrupt change in water temperature and an increase in nitrogenous forms.Key words: ENSO, Gymnodinium catentum, HAB, Mexican tropical Pacific, morphometry, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum. Resumen:Antecedentes y Objetivos: Los florecimientos algales nocivos (FAN) ocurren comúnmente en el Pacífico mexicano, siendo importantes los de Gymnodinium catenatum (Gc) y Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum (Pbc), dinoflagelados productores de saxitoxina que causan envenenamiento paralítico por mariscos. Pbc se presenta esporádicamente en el Pacifico tropical mexicano. El estudio describe el comportamiento de ambos taxa en un ciclo anual y analiza su morfología, abundancia, distribución y dinámica del FAN en relación con parámetros ambientales y climatológicos. Métodos: Se realizaron diez recolectas de fitoplancton (octubre 2009-enero 2011) en la Bahía de Acapulco y zona costera adyacente, y mediciones de parámetros fisicoquímicos. Los datos climáticos se obtuvieron de la estación meteorológica de Acapulco. La abundancia del fitoplancton se evaluó con el método de Utermöhl. Se realizaron análisis estadísticos para investigar la relación de las abundancias de Gc y Pbc con parámetros ambientales y climáticos. Resultados clave: Gc estuvo presente durante todo el año 2010 con densidades bajas; en noviembre de 2010 alcanzó un máximo de 189×103 células l-1, asociado con especies de diatomeas y dinoflagelados, incluyendo Pbc. El florecimiento de Gc coincidió con disminución de amonio y disminución de temperatura del agua con respecto al promedio. La morfometría de Pb de Acapulco correspondió con la var. compressum. Pbc formó un intenso FAN en julio de 2010 (abundancia máxima de 773×103 células l-1), causando una toxicidad significativa y tuvo un repunte en noviembre. Conclusiones: Los FAN de Pbc en Acapulco requieren un FAN previo en el Pacífico central o en el Golfo de Tehuantepec, transporte horizontal de sus quistes, alta temperatura del agua y abundante precipitación que aumente la concentración de fosfatos; condiciones que se propician en los períodos de transición”El Niño”-La Niña”. Los FAN de Gc en Acapulco están relacionados con eventos “La Niña”, siendo importantes el cambio abrupto de temperatura del agua y el aumento de formas nitrogenadas.Palabras clave: ENSO, FAN, Gymnodinium catentum, morfometría, Pacífico tropical mexicano, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum.
Background and Aims: Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) of diverse groups of phytoplankton occur commonly in the Mexican Pacific. Two of these are important, caused by saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellates that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning: Gymnodinium catenatum (Gc) and Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum (Pbc). This study describes the behavior of both taxa throughout the annual cycle and analyzes their morphology, abundance, distribution, and their bloom dynamics in relation to environmental and climatological parameters. Methods: Phytoplankton collections were made in eight study locations within Acapulco Bay, and adjacent coastal zone together with measurements of physicochemical parameters. The climatic data were obtained from the meteorological station 76850 located in Acapulco. Abundance of phytoplankton was evaluated with the Utermöhl method. Statistical analyzes were made to investigate the relationship of Gc and Pbc abundances with environmental and climatic parameters.Key results: Gc was present throughout the year in low densities and in November 2010 it reached a maximum of 189×103 cells L-1, associated with several species of both diatoms and dinoflagellates, including Pbc.  Gc bloom coincides with decrease in ammonium, its preferred nitrogenous form and decrease in water temperature with respect to the average. Pbc formed an intense HAB in July 2010 (reaching a maximum abundance of 773×103 cells L-1), causing significant toxicity and had an upturn in November.Conclusions: Pbc HABs in Acapulco require the occurrence of a previous HAB in the central Pacific or Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico, the horizontal transportation of their cysts, as well as high water temperature conditions, abundant rainfall that increased the concentration of phosphates; that is propitiated in the periods of transition “El Niño”-“La Niña” events.
 
Publisher Instituto de Ecología, A.C.
 
Contributor
Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO) for the financial support received for the support of the research project: HJ014.
 
Date 2020-01-13
 
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

artículo evaluado por pares
 
Format application/pdf
application/xml
application/xml
application/epub+zip
 
Identifier http://abm.ojs.inecol.mx/index.php/abm/article/view/1559
10.21829/abm127.2020.1559
 
Source Acta Botanica Mexicana; Núm. 127 (2020)
Acta Botanica Mexicana; Núm. 127 (2020)
2448-7589
0187-7151
 
Language eng
 
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Rights Copyright (c) 2020 Acta Botanica Mexicana
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0
 

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