Black, female, and communities encompassing sexual minorities in sport. Olympic Games as a means of fighting for equality

Olimpianos - Journal of Olympic Studies

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Title Black, female, and communities encompassing sexual minorities in sport. Olympic Games as a means of fighting for equality
 
Creator Rozmiarek, Mateusz
Malchrowicz-Mośko, Ewa
 
Description After an arduous fight for the rights of women and black people practically throughout the entire twentieth century,  the voice of members of community encompassing sexual minorities and other individuals with non-normative genders has been increasingly appearing in the public discourse. This is another group that began to demand respect and acceptance. Their actions are carried out at different levels. One of such ventures are the Olympic Games, whose range of influence and popularity is regularly increasing. Is there, therefore, a time-dependent correlation between the biannually held (alternately summer and winter), most recognized international sports competitions and the actions of people belonging to sexual minorities whose orientation is not heterosexual and people with gender identity different from their assigned sex? The following analysis shows the Olympic history in that regard, which, supplemented with numerous sport threads about the fight for the rights of women and people with a skin color other than white, is designed to verify the presented hypothesis.
References
1 Müller N. Olympism. Selected writings. Lausanne: IOC; 2000. p. 711-713.
2 Lennartz K. Two women ran the marathon in 1896. Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1994; 2(1): 19-20.
3 Tarasouleas A. Stamata Revithi, ‘Alias Melpomeni’. Olympic Review. 1997; XXVI(17): 53-55.
4 Quintillan G. Alice Milliat and the Women’s Games. Olympic Review. 2000; XXVI(31): 27-28.
5 Młodzikowski G. 20 olimpiad ery nowożytnej. Warszawa: Sport i Turystyka; 1973.
6 Porada Z. Starożytne i nowożytne igrzyska olimpijskie. Kraków: KAW; 1980. 
7 Rempel B. [Internet] Women’s ski jumping aim at the Winter Olympics [cited 2019 Ago 12]. 2013. Available from www.skiinghistory.org. 
8 Hart S. [Internet] Sochi Winter Olympics 2014: Carina Vogt wins women’s ski jumping gold [cited 2019 Ago 12]. 2014. Available from www.telegraph.co.uk.
9 Lipoński W. All Games, All Nations? Problems of cultural universality of the Olympic Movement. Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism.  2003;10(1): 107-14.
10 Holmes J. Olympiad 1936. New York: Ballantine; 1971.
11 Blundell N. Hitler w obiektywie. Nieznane zdjęcia. t. J. Złotnicki, Warszawa: Amber; 2018.
12 Shaikin B. Sport and politics. The Olympics and the Los Angeles Games. New York: Praeger Publishers; 1988.
13 Walters G. Igrzyska w Berlinie. Jak Hitler ukradł olimpijski sen. Poznań: Rebis; 2008.
14 Willemsen E. Togo’s 1st Winter Olympian wants to inspire Africa. Associated Press, 13 Feb 2014 [cited 2019 Ago 10]. Russia: ABC News.
15 Berg S. (2009). How Dora the Man Competed in the Woman's High Jump. Der Spiegel, 15 Sep 2009             [cited 2019 Jul 29].
16 García J. [Internet] Der Mann, der eine Hochspringerin war. 18 Oct 2017, [cited 2019 Ago 11]. Available from www.die-tagesport.de.
17 Tucker R, Collins M. The science of sex verification and athletic performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2010; 5(2): 127-139.
18 Padawer R. [Internet] The humiliating practice of sex-testing female athletes. The New York Times, 28 Jun 2016 [cited 2019 Ago 11]. Available from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/03/magazine/the-humiliating-practice-of-sex-testing-female-athletes.html
19 Lenskyj H.J. Gay Games or Gay Olympics? Implications for lesbian inclusion. Sociological Perspectives on Sport: The Games Outside the Games. 2015: 352.
20 Kirby SL, Demers G, Parent, S. Vulnerability/prevention: Considering the needs of disabled and gay athletes in the context of sexual harassment and abuse. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2008; 6(4): 407-26.
21 Hubbard P, Wilkinson E. Welcoming the world? Hospitality, homonationalism, and the London 2012 Olympics. Antipode. 2015; 47(3): 598-615.
22 Camporesi S, Maugeri P. Caster Semenya: sport, categories and the creative role of ethics, J Med.    Ethics. 2010; 36: 378-9.
23 Karkazis K, Jordan-Young RM. The powers of testosterone: Obscuring race and regional bias in the regulation of women athletes. Feminist Formations. 2018; 30(2): 1-39.
24 Wojnarowski G. [Internet] Dla Jóźwik to powinna być złota medalistka IO. Piękna Kanadyjka kontra afrykańskie maszyny. 13 Aug 2017 [cited 2019 Ago 08], Available from www.sportowefakty.wp.pl.
25 Fabian M. [Internet] MŚ w Dausze. Caster Semenya z zakazek startu na 800 m. Nie obroni tytułu mistrzowskiego. 30 July 2019 [cited 2019 Ago 08]. Available from www.sportowefakty.wp.pl.
26 Stern, C. [Internet] (2016). I wanted to give up – but I didn’t: Nike casts its first transgender sports star, Olympic triathlete Chris Mosier, in a groundbreaking new ad campaign [cited 2019 Ago 10]. Available from www.dailymail.co.uk.
27 Sawicka-Stępińska B. Women in the Polish Language of Sports: Feminatives and other displays of gender asymmetry [w:] Bogusławska-Tafelska M, Haładewicz-Grzelak M. Editors. Communication as a Life Process, volume 2. The Holistic Paradigm in Language Sciences. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 2019. p. 237-247.
28 IOC. Olympic Charter. Lausanne: IOC; 2018.
Después de una ardua lucha por los derechos de las mujeres y los negros durante la mayor parte del siglo XX, la voz de los miembros de la comunidad que abraza a las minorías sexuales y otros individuos de género no normativos aparece cada vez más en el discurso público. Este es otro grupo que ha comenzado a exigir respeto y aceptación. Sus acciones se realizan en diferentes niveles. Una de esas empresas son los Juegos Olímpicos, cuyo rango de influencia y popularidad aumenta constantemente. ¿Existe, por lo tanto, una correlación dependiente del tiempo entre las competiciones deportivas bienales reconocidas internacionalmente (alternativamente en verano e invierno) y las acciones de personas de minorías sexuales cuya orientación no heterosexual y personas con una identidad de género diferente a su género designado? El siguiente análisis muestra la historia olímpica a este respecto, que se complementa con numerosas líneas de investigación deportiva sobre la lucha por los derechos de las mujeres y las personas con un color de piel diferente al blanco, está diseñado para verificar la hipótesis presentada.
Referencias
1 Müller N. Olympism. Selected writings. Lausanne: IOC; 2000. p. 711-713.
2 Lennartz K. Two women ran the marathon in 1896. Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1994; 2(1): 19-20.
3 Tarasouleas A. Stamata Revithi, ‘Alias Melpomeni’. Olympic Review. 1997; XXVI(17): 53-55.
4 Quintillan G. Alice Milliat and the Women’s Games. Olympic Review. 2000; XXVI(31): 27-28.
5 Młodzikowski G. 20 olimpiad ery nowożytnej. Warszawa: Sport i Turystyka; 1973.
6 Porada Z. Starożytne i nowożytne igrzyska olimpijskie. Kraków: KAW; 1980. 
7 Rempel B. [Internet] Women’s ski jumping aim at the Winter Olympics [cited 2019 Ago 12]. 2013. Available from www.skiinghistory.org. 
8 Hart S. [Internet] Sochi Winter Olympics 2014: Carina Vogt wins women’s ski jumping gold [cited 2019 Ago 12]. 2014. Available from www.telegraph.co.uk.
9 Lipoński W. All Games, All Nations? Problems of cultural universality of the Olympic Movement. Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism.  2003;10(1): 107-14.
10 Holmes J. Olympiad 1936. New York: Ballantine; 1971.
11 Blundell N. Hitler w obiektywie. Nieznane zdjęcia. t. J. Złotnicki, Warszawa: Amber; 2018.
12 Shaikin B. Sport and politics. The Olympics and the Los Angeles Games. New York: Praeger Publishers; 1988.
13 Walters G. Igrzyska w Berlinie. Jak Hitler ukradł olimpijski sen. Poznań: Rebis; 2008.
14 Willemsen E. Togo’s 1st Winter Olympian wants to inspire Africa. Associated Press, 13 Feb 2014 [cited 2019 Ago 10]. Russia: ABC News.
15 Berg S. (2009). How Dora the Man Competed in the Woman's High Jump. Der Spiegel, 15 Sep 2009             [cited 2019 Jul 29].
16 García J. [Internet] Der Mann, der eine Hochspringerin war. 18 Oct 2017, [cited 2019 Ago 11]. Available from www.die-tagesport.de.
17 Tucker R, Collins M. The science of sex verification and athletic performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2010; 5(2): 127-139.
18 Padawer R. [Internet] The humiliating practice of sex-testing female athletes. The New York Times, 28 Jun 2016 [cited 2019 Ago 11]. Available from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/03/magazine/the-humiliating-practice-of-sex-testing-female-athletes.html
19 Lenskyj H.J. Gay Games or Gay Olympics? Implications for lesbian inclusion. Sociological Perspectives on Sport: The Games Outside the Games. 2015: 352.
20 Kirby SL, Demers G, Parent, S. Vulnerability/prevention: Considering the needs of disabled and gay athletes in the context of sexual harassment and abuse. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2008; 6(4): 407-26.
21 Hubbard P, Wilkinson E. Welcoming the world? Hospitality, homonationalism, and the London 2012 Olympics. Antipode. 2015; 47(3): 598-615.
22 Camporesi S, Maugeri P. Caster Semenya: sport, categories and the creative role of ethics, J Med.    Ethics. 2010; 36: 378-9.
23 Karkazis K, Jordan-Young RM. The powers of testosterone: Obscuring race and regional bias in the regulation of women athletes. Feminist Formations. 2018; 30(2): 1-39.
24 Wojnarowski G. [Internet] Dla Jóźwik to powinna być złota medalistka IO. Piękna Kanadyjka kontra afrykańskie maszyny. 13 Aug 2017 [cited 2019 Ago 08], Available from www.sportowefakty.wp.pl.
25 Fabian M. [Internet] MŚ w Dausze. Caster Semenya z zakazek startu na 800 m. Nie obroni tytułu mistrzowskiego. 30 July 2019 [cited 2019 Ago 08]. Available from www.sportowefakty.wp.pl.
26 Stern, C. [Internet] (2016). I wanted to give up – but I didn’t: Nike casts its first transgender sports star, Olympic triathlete Chris Mosier, in a groundbreaking new ad campaign [cited 2019 Ago 10]. Available from www.dailymail.co.uk.
27 Sawicka-Stępińska B. Women in the Polish Language of Sports: Feminatives and other displays of gender asymmetry [w:] Bogusławska-Tafelska M, Haładewicz-Grzelak M. Editors. Communication as a Life Process, volume 2. The Holistic Paradigm in Language Sciences. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 2019. p. 237-247.
28 IOC. Olympic Charter. Lausanne: IOC; 2018.
Após uma árdua luta pelos direitos das mulheres e das pessoas negras durante praticamente todo o século XX, a voz dos membros da comunidade que abrange as minorias sexuais e outros indivíduos com gênero não normativo, vem aparecendo cada vez mais no discurso público. Esse é outro grupo que começou a exigir respeito e aceitação. Suas ações são realizadas em diferentes níveis. Um desses empreendimentos são os Jogos Olímpicos, cuja gama de influência e popularidade aumenta progressivamente. Existe, portanto, uma correlação dependente do tempo entre as competições esportivas reconhecidas internacionais realizadas bianualmente (alternadamente verão e inverno) e as ações de pessoas pertencentes a minorias sexuais cuja orientação não é heterossexual e pessoas com identidade de gênero diferente de seu sexo designado? A análise a seguir mostra a história olímpica a esse respeito, que é complementada com inúmeras linhas de pesquisa do esporte sobre a luta pelos direitos de mulheres e das pessoas com uma cor de pele diferente de branca, é projetada para verificar a hipótese apresentada.
Referências
1 Müller N. Olympism. Selected writings. Lausanne: IOC; 2000. p. 711-713.
2 Lennartz K. Two women ran the marathon in 1896. Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1994; 2(1): 19-20.
3 Tarasouleas A. Stamata Revithi, ‘Alias Melpomeni’. Olympic Review. 1997; XXVI(17): 53-55.
4 Quintillan G. Alice Milliat and the Women’s Games. Olympic Review. 2000; XXVI(31): 27-28.
5 Młodzikowski G. 20 olimpiad ery nowożytnej. Warszawa: Sport i Turystyka; 1973.
6 Porada Z. Starożytne i nowożytne igrzyska olimpijskie. Kraków: KAW; 1980. 
7 Rempel B. [Internet] Women’s ski jumping aim at the Winter Olympics [cited 2019 Ago 12]. 2013. Available from www.skiinghistory.org. 
8 Hart S. [Internet] Sochi Winter Olympics 2014: Carina Vogt wins women’s ski jumping gold [cited 2019 Ago 12]. 2014. Available from www.telegraph.co.uk.
9 Lipoński W. All Games, All Nations? Problems of cultural universality of the Olympic Movement. Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism.  2003;10(1): 107-14.
10 Holmes J. Olympiad 1936. New York: Ballantine; 1971.
11 Blundell N. Hitler w obiektywie. Nieznane zdjęcia. t. J. Złotnicki, Warszawa: Amber; 2018.
12 Shaikin B. Sport and politics. The Olympics and the Los Angeles Games. New York: Praeger Publishers; 1988.
13 Walters G. Igrzyska w Berlinie. Jak Hitler ukradł olimpijski sen. Poznań: Rebis; 2008.
14 Willemsen E. Togo’s 1st Winter Olympian wants to inspire Africa. Associated Press, 13 Feb 2014 [cited 2019 Ago 10]. Russia: ABC News.
15 Berg S. (2009). How Dora the Man Competed in the Woman's High Jump. Der Spiegel, 15 Sep 2009             [cited 2019 Jul 29].
16 García J. [Internet] Der Mann, der eine Hochspringerin war. 18 Oct 2017, [cited 2019 Ago 11]. Available from www.die-tagesport.de.
17 Tucker R, Collins M. The science of sex verification and athletic performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2010; 5(2): 127-139.
18 Padawer R. [Internet] The humiliating practice of sex-testing female athletes. The New York Times, 28 Jun 2016 [cited 2019 Ago 11]. Available from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/03/magazine/the-humiliating-practice-of-sex-testing-female-athletes.html
19 Lenskyj H.J. Gay Games or Gay Olympics? Implications for lesbian inclusion. Sociological Perspectives on Sport: The Games Outside the Games. 2015: 352.
20 Kirby SL, Demers G, Parent, S. Vulnerability/prevention: Considering the needs of disabled and gay athletes in the context of sexual harassment and abuse. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2008; 6(4): 407-26.
21 Hubbard P, Wilkinson E. Welcoming the world? Hospitality, homonationalism, and the London 2012 Olympics. Antipode. 2015; 47(3): 598-615.
22 Camporesi S, Maugeri P. Caster Semenya: sport, categories and the creative role of ethics, J Med.    Ethics. 2010; 36: 378-9.
23 Karkazis K, Jordan-Young RM. The powers of testosterone: Obscuring race and regional bias in the regulation of women athletes. Feminist Formations. 2018; 30(2): 1-39.
24 Wojnarowski G. [Internet] Dla Jóźwik to powinna być złota medalistka IO. Piękna Kanadyjka kontra afrykańskie maszyny. 13 Aug 2017 [cited 2019 Ago 08], Available from www.sportowefakty.wp.pl.
25 Fabian M. [Internet] MŚ w Dausze. Caster Semenya z zakazek startu na 800 m. Nie obroni tytułu mistrzowskiego. 30 July 2019 [cited 2019 Ago 08]. Available from www.sportowefakty.wp.pl.
26 Stern, C. [Internet] (2016). I wanted to give up – but I didn’t: Nike casts its first transgender sports star, Olympic triathlete Chris Mosier, in a groundbreaking new ad campaign [cited 2019 Ago 10]. Available from www.dailymail.co.uk.
27 Sawicka-Stępińska B. Women in the Polish Language of Sports: Feminatives and other displays of gender asymmetry [w:] Bogusławska-Tafelska M, Haładewicz-Grzelak M. Editors. Communication as a Life Process, volume 2. The Holistic Paradigm in Language Sciences. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 2019. p. 237-247.
28 IOC. Olympic Charter. Lausanne: IOC; 2018.
 
Publisher Olimpianos
 
Date 2019-09-05
 
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
 
Format application/pdf
 
Identifier http://olimpianos.com.br/journal/index.php/Olimpianos/article/view/59
10.30937/2526-6314.v2n3.id59
 
Source Olimpianos - Journal of Olympic Studies; Vol 2 No 3 (2018); 528-538
Olimpianos - Journal of Olympic Studies; Vol. 2 Núm. 3 (2018); 528-538
Olimpianos - Journal of Olympic Studies; v. 2 n. 3 (2018); 528-538
2526-6314
 
Language eng
 
Relation http://olimpianos.com.br/journal/index.php/Olimpianos/article/view/59/44
 
Rights Copyright (c) 2018 Olimpianos - Journal of Olympic Studies
 

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