Age-related motives in mass running events participation

Olimpianos - Journal of Olympic Studies

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Title Age-related motives in mass running events participation
Motivos relacionados con la edad en la participación en eventos de carrera
Motivos relacionados com a idade na participação em eventos de corrida
 
Creator Poczta, Joanna
Malchrowicz-Mośko, Ewa
Fadigas, Amanda Braga de Melo
 
Description To determine the age-related motivations for participating in a half marathon among four age categories of respondents: up to 25 years old (n=238), 26-35 years old (n=228), 36-50 years old (n=69), and 51-70 years old (n=25) was the main goal of the study. A self-constructed questionnaire was used for the study (N=560) during the 6th Poznan Half Marathon (one of the most important running events in Poland). The basis for the development of the author’s questionnaire survey of motives for participation in running events was the division of Freyer and Gross (2002). The research instrument was validated before the examined event (during the 5th Poznan Half Marathon). The main findings of the presented research were strictly connected with the motive to maintain physical condition and health. This motive was important for all the surveyed age groups of runners and reported by 82.1% (460) of the respondents. It was also the most important for the oldest age group: runners aged 51-70 (96% reported this motivation as being the most important). The most significant difference between young and older runners is that young people are more often focused on results, while older people are more focused on contact with other people, with social aspects being more important to them. They also pay more attention to the attractiveness of the city in which they run. But the young think about achieving a sports result, experiencing intense emotions, and achieving recognition in the eyes of others.
References
1 Tschopp M, Brunner F. Diseases and overuse injuries of the lower extremities in long distance runners. Z Rheumatol. 2017; 76(5): 443–450. doi:10.1007/s00393-017-0276-6. PMID: 28236094.
2 Trappe S. Marathon runners: how do they age? Sports Med. 2007; 37(4-5): 302-305. doi:10.2165/00007256-200737040-00008. PMID: 17465594.
3 Dróżdż R., Olszewski-Strzyżowski J. Wpływ aktywności fizycznej na styl życia maratończyków. In: Zowiło M, Kosiewicz J, editors. Sport i turystyka w zwierciadle wartości społecznych. Krakow: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego; 2015. p. 469-486.
4 Scheerder J, Breedveld K, Borgers J. Who is doing a run with the running boom? The growth and governance of one of Europe’s most popular sport activities. In: Scheerder J, Breedveld K, editors. Running across Europe: the rise and size of one of the largest sport markets. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan; 2015. p. 1-27.
5 Stempień JR. “Must be healthy, must be sporty” – experiences of Poland and selected European countries: the case of popularity of running. In: Sawicki B, editor. Promotion of healthy lifestyle in European countries. Lublin: Katedra Turystyki i Rekreacji Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Lublinie; 2015a. p. 162-174.
6 Lepers R, Cattagni T. Do older athletes reach limits in their performance during marathon running? Age. 2012; 34(3): 773-781. doi: 10.1007/s11357-011-9271-z. PMID: 21617894.
7 Tanaka H, Seals DR. Endurance exercise performance in masters athletes: age-associated changes and underlying physiological mechanisms. J Physiol (Lond). 2008; 586: 55-63. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.141879.
8 Renfree A, St Clair Gibson A. Influence of different performance levels on pacing strategy during the Women’s World Championship marathon race. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013; 8(3): 279-285. PMID: 23006811.
9 Angus SD. Did recent world record marathon runners employ optimal pacing strategies? J Sports Sci. 2014; 32(1): 31-45. doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.803592, PMID: 23879745. 
10 Skorski S, Abbiss CR. The manipulation of pace within endurance sport. Front Physiol. 2017; 8: 102. doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00102, PMID: 28289392.
11 Sjödin B, Svedenhag J. Applied physiology of marathon running. Sports Med. 1985; 2: 83-99. doi:10.2165/00007256-198502020-00002, PMID: 3890068.
12 Leyk D, Erley O, Gorges W, Ridder D, Ruther T, Wunderlich M, Sievert A, Essfeld D, Piekarski C, Erren T. Performance, training and lifestyle parameters of marathon runners aged 20-80 years: results of the PACE study. Int J Sports Med. 2009; 30(5): 360-365. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1105935. PMID: 19277939.
13 Leyk D, Rüther T, Wunderlich M, Sievert A, Essfeld D, Witzki A, et al. Physical performance in middle age and old age: good news for our sedentary and aging society. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010; 107: 809-16. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2010.0809, PMID: 21151416.
14 Lehto N. Effects of age on marathon finishing time among male amateur runners in Stockholm Marathon 1979-2014. J Sport Health Sci. 2016; 5(3): 349-354. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.008.
15 Jokl P, Sethi PM, Cooper AJ. Master’s performance in the New York City Marathon 1983-1999. Br J Sports Med. 2004; 38: 408-412. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2002.003566, PMID: 15273172.
16 Tanaka H, Seals DR. Invited review: dynamic exercise performance in masters athletes: insight into the effects of primary human aging on physiological functional capacity. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95: 2152-2162. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00320.2003, PMID: 14555676.
17 Leyk D, Erley O, Ridder D, Leurs M, Rüther T, Wunderlich M, et al. Age-related changes in marathon and half-marathon performances. Int J Sports Med. 2007; 28: 513-517. PMID: 17600902.
18 Wright VJ, Perricelli BC. Age-related rates of decline in performance among elite senior athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2008; 36: 443-450. doi:10.1177/0363546507309673 PMID: 18055922.
19 Baker AB, Tang YQ, Turner MJ. Percentage decline in masters super athlete track and field performance with aging. Exp Aging Res. 2003; 29: 47-65 doi:10.1080/03610730303706, PMID: 12735081.
20 Lara B, Salinero JJ, Del Coso J. The relationship between age and running time in elite marathoners is U-shaped Age (Dordr). 2014; 36(2): 1003–1008. doi:10.1007/s11357-013-9614-z, PMID: 24407890.
21 Summers JJ, Sargent GI, Levey AJ, Murray, KD. Middle-aged, non-elite marathon runners: a profile. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1982; 1. doi:10.2466/pms.1982.54.3.963
22 Stempień JR. Polska moda na bieganie w świetle analizy kohort. Perspektywa socjologiczna. In: Zowisło M, Kosiewicz J, editors. Sport i turystyka w zwierciadle wartości społecznych. Kraków: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego; 2015. p. 450-460.
23 Waśkowski Z. Profil polskiego biegacza. Raport z badań, 2014 [acesso 01 mar. 2018]. Disponível em: http://sm.nauka.ehost.pl/pdf/ Biegacze.pdf
24 Waśkowski Z. Rynek biegowy w Polsce. In: Waśkowski Z, editor. Marketing imprez biegowych. Poznań: Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe; 2014. p. 9-17.
25 Stempień JR. , Ladies and gentlemen… On your marks, get set, go! About leisure time sport and the popularity of running among men and women, Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, Folia Sociologica. 2015c; 4:185–209.
26 Ogles, BM., Masters, KS. Older vs. Younger Adult Male Marathon Runners: Participative Motives and Training Habits, Journal of Sport Behavior. 2000; 23(2): 130-143.
27 Freyer, W.; Gross, S. (Eds.) Tourismus und Sport-Events; FIT Forschungsinstitut für Tourismus: Dresden, Germany; 2002.
28 Poczta, J.; Malchrowicz-Mośko, E. Modern Running Events in Sustainable Development—More than Just Taking Care of Health and Physical Condition (Poznan Half Marathon Case Study). Sustainability 2018; 10: 2145. doi:10.3390/su10072145.
29 Malchrowicz-Mośko, E.; Poczta, J. Running as a Form of Therapy Socio-Psychological Functions of Mass Running Events for Men and Women. Int. J. Environ Res. Public Health. 2018; 15: 2262. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102262.
30 Stebbins RA. Cultural tourism as serious leisure. Annals of Tourism Research 1996;23(4): 948-950. doi:10.1016/0160-7383(96)00028-X.
31 Vehmas H. Rationale of active leisure: understanding sport, tourism and leisure choices in the Finnish society. Ido Movement for Culture. 2010; 10: 121-127.
32 Zuckerman MR. Sensation seeking motive. In: Maher BH, editor. Progress in experimental personality research. Vol. 7. New York: Academic Press; 1974. p. 79-148.
33 Eliasz, A. Ecological psychology. Warsaw: Publisher of the Institute of Psychology of the Polish Academy of Sciences; 1993.
34 Strelau J. Psychology of temperament. Warsaw: PWN; 2009.
35 Walczak M., Tomczak M. The structure of psychological determinants of selected aspects of physical activity in the light of the theory of self-determination. In: Sport and recreation and the challenge of modern civilization, Scientific Notebooks of Szczecin University, no. 689, Economic Issues Services, no. 78. Szczecin: Uniwersytet Szczeciński; 2011. Disponível em: http://www.wzieu.pl/zn/689/ZN_689.pdf.
36 National Census of Runners/Narodowy Spis Biegaczy 2014.
37 Nowak P, Sport rekreacyjny na pograniczu wartości prozdrowotnych, „Zdrowie – Kultura Zdrowotna – Edukacja”. 2010; 6: 129–134.
Determinar las motivaciones relacionadas con la edad para participar de media maratón en cuatro categorías de edad de los entrevistados: hasta 25 años (n = 238), 26-35 años (n = 228), 36-50 años (n = 69) y 51- 70 años (n = 25) fue el principal objetivo del estudio. Un cuestionario autoconstruido fue utilizado para el estudio (N = 560) durante la Sexta Maratón de Poznan (uno de los más importantes eventos de carrera en Polonia). La base para el desarrollo del cuestionario sobre los motivos para la participación en eventos de carrera fue la división de Freyer y Gross (2002). El instrumento de investigación fue validado antes del evento examinado (durante la 5ª Media Maratón de Poznan). Los principales hallazgos de esta investigación fueron estrictamente relacionados con el motivo para mantener la condición física y la salud. El motivo fue importante para todos los grupos de edad investigados y reportados por el 82,1% (460) de los entrevistados. Fue también el más importante para el grupo de edad más viejo: corredores con edades entre 51 y 70 años (96% relataron esa motivación como la más importante). La diferencia más significativa entre corredores jóvenes y mayores es que los jóvenes se centran más en resultados, mientras que los más viejos están más enfocados en el contacto con otras personas, siendo los aspectos sociales más importantes para ellos. También prestan más atención al atractivo de la ciudad en la que corren. Mientras los jóvenes piensan en alcanzar un resultado deportivo, sentir emociones intensas y conquistar reconocimiento a los ojos de los demás.
References
1 Tschopp M, Brunner F. Diseases and overuse injuries of the lower extremities in long distance runners. Z Rheumatol. 2017; 76(5): 443–450. doi:10.1007/s00393-017-0276-6. PMID: 28236094.
2 Trappe S. Marathon runners: how do they age? Sports Med. 2007; 37(4-5): 302-305. doi:10.2165/00007256-200737040-00008. PMID: 17465594.
3 Dróżdż R., Olszewski-Strzyżowski J. Wpływ aktywności fizycznej na styl życia maratończyków. In: Zowiło M, Kosiewicz J, editors. Sport i turystyka w zwierciadle wartości społecznych. Krakow: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego; 2015. p. 469-486.
4 Scheerder J, Breedveld K, Borgers J. Who is doing a run with the running boom? The growth and governance of one of Europe’s most popular sport activities. In: Scheerder J, Breedveld K, editors. Running across Europe: the rise and size of one of the largest sport markets. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan; 2015. p. 1-27.
5 Stempień JR. “Must be healthy, must be sporty” – experiences of Poland and selected European countries: the case of popularity of running. In: Sawicki B, editor. Promotion of healthy lifestyle in European countries. Lublin: Katedra Turystyki i Rekreacji Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Lublinie; 2015a. p. 162-174.
6 Lepers R, Cattagni T. Do older athletes reach limits in their performance during marathon running? Age. 2012; 34(3): 773-781. doi: 10.1007/s11357-011-9271-z. PMID: 21617894.
7 Tanaka H, Seals DR. Endurance exercise performance in masters athletes: age-associated changes and underlying physiological mechanisms. J Physiol (Lond). 2008; 586: 55-63. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.141879.
8 Renfree A, St Clair Gibson A. Influence of different performance levels on pacing strategy during the Women’s World Championship marathon race. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013; 8(3): 279-285. PMID: 23006811.
9 Angus SD. Did recent world record marathon runners employ optimal pacing strategies? J Sports Sci. 2014; 32(1): 31-45. doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.803592, PMID: 23879745. 
10 Skorski S, Abbiss CR. The manipulation of pace within endurance sport. Front Physiol. 2017; 8: 102. doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00102, PMID: 28289392.
11 Sjödin B, Svedenhag J. Applied physiology of marathon running. Sports Med. 1985; 2: 83-99. doi:10.2165/00007256-198502020-00002, PMID: 3890068.
12 Leyk D, Erley O, Gorges W, Ridder D, Ruther T, Wunderlich M, Sievert A, Essfeld D, Piekarski C, Erren T. Performance, training and lifestyle parameters of marathon runners aged 20-80 years: results of the PACE study. Int J Sports Med. 2009; 30(5): 360-365. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1105935. PMID: 19277939.
13 Leyk D, Rüther T, Wunderlich M, Sievert A, Essfeld D, Witzki A, et al. Physical performance in middle age and old age: good news for our sedentary and aging society. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010; 107: 809-16. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2010.0809, PMID: 21151416.
14 Lehto N. Effects of age on marathon finishing time among male amateur runners in Stockholm Marathon 1979-2014. J Sport Health Sci. 2016; 5(3): 349-354. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.008.
15 Jokl P, Sethi PM, Cooper AJ. Master’s performance in the New York City Marathon 1983-1999. Br J Sports Med. 2004; 38: 408-412. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2002.003566, PMID: 15273172.
16 Tanaka H, Seals DR. Invited review: dynamic exercise performance in masters athletes: insight into the effects of primary human aging on physiological functional capacity. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95: 2152-2162. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00320.2003, PMID: 14555676.
17 Leyk D, Erley O, Ridder D, Leurs M, Rüther T, Wunderlich M, et al. Age-related changes in marathon and half-marathon performances. Int J Sports Med. 2007; 28: 513-517. PMID: 17600902.
18 Wright VJ, Perricelli BC. Age-related rates of decline in performance among elite senior athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2008; 36: 443-450. doi:10.1177/0363546507309673 PMID: 18055922.
19 Baker AB, Tang YQ, Turner MJ. Percentage decline in masters super athlete track and field performance with aging. Exp Aging Res. 2003; 29: 47-65 doi:10.1080/03610730303706, PMID: 12735081.
20 Lara B, Salinero JJ, Del Coso J. The relationship between age and running time in elite marathoners is U-shaped Age (Dordr). 2014; 36(2): 1003–1008. doi:10.1007/s11357-013-9614-z, PMID: 24407890.
21 Summers JJ, Sargent GI, Levey AJ, Murray, KD. Middle-aged, non-elite marathon runners: a profile. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1982; 1. doi:10.2466/pms.1982.54.3.963
22 Stempień JR. Polska moda na bieganie w świetle analizy kohort. Perspektywa socjologiczna. In: Zowisło M, Kosiewicz J, editors. Sport i turystyka w zwierciadle wartości społecznych. Kraków: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego; 2015. p. 450-460.
23 Waśkowski Z. Profil polskiego biegacza. Raport z badań, 2014 [acesso 01 mar. 2018]. Disponível em: http://sm.nauka.ehost.pl/pdf/ Biegacze.pdf
24 Waśkowski Z. Rynek biegowy w Polsce. In: Waśkowski Z, editor. Marketing imprez biegowych. Poznań: Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe; 2014. p. 9-17.
25 Stempień JR. , Ladies and gentlemen… On your marks, get set, go! About leisure time sport and the popularity of running among men and women, Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, Folia Sociologica. 2015c; 4:185–209.
26 Ogles, BM., Masters, KS. Older vs. Younger Adult Male Marathon Runners: Participative Motives and Training Habits, Journal of Sport Behavior. 2000; 23(2): 130-143.
27 Freyer, W.; Gross, S. (Eds.) Tourismus und Sport-Events; FIT Forschungsinstitut für Tourismus: Dresden, Germany; 2002.
28 Poczta, J.; Malchrowicz-Mośko, E. Modern Running Events in Sustainable Development—More than Just Taking Care of Health and Physical Condition (Poznan Half Marathon Case Study). Sustainability 2018; 10: 2145. doi:10.3390/su10072145.
29 Malchrowicz-Mośko, E.; Poczta, J. Running as a Form of Therapy Socio-Psychological Functions of Mass Running Events for Men and Women. Int. J. Environ Res. Public Health. 2018; 15: 2262. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102262.
30 Stebbins RA. Cultural tourism as serious leisure. Annals of Tourism Research 1996;23(4): 948-950. doi:10.1016/0160-7383(96)00028-X.
31 Vehmas H. Rationale of active leisure: understanding sport, tourism and leisure choices in the Finnish society. Ido Movement for Culture. 2010; 10: 121-127.
32 Zuckerman MR. Sensation seeking motive. In: Maher BH, editor. Progress in experimental personality research. Vol. 7. New York: Academic Press; 1974. p. 79-148.
33 Eliasz, A. Ecological psychology. Warsaw: Publisher of the Institute of Psychology of the Polish Academy of Sciences; 1993.
34 Strelau J. Psychology of temperament. Warsaw: PWN; 2009.
35 Walczak M., Tomczak M. The structure of psychological determinants of selected aspects of physical activity in the light of the theory of self-determination. In: Sport and recreation and the challenge of modern civilization, Scientific Notebooks of Szczecin University, no. 689, Economic Issues Services, no. 78. Szczecin: Uniwersytet Szczeciński; 2011. Disponível em: http://www.wzieu.pl/zn/689/ZN_689.pdf.
36 National Census of Runners/Narodowy Spis Biegaczy 2014.
37 Nowak P, Sport rekreacyjny na pograniczu wartości prozdrowotnych, „Zdrowie – Kultura Zdrowotna – Edukacja”. 2010; 6: 129–134.
Determinar as motivações relacionadas à idade para participar de meia maratona em quatro categorias de idade dos entrevistados: até 25 anos (n=238), 26-35 anos (n=228), 36-50 anos (n=69) e 51-70 anos (n=25) foi o principal objetivo do estudo. Um questionário autoconstruído foi utilizado para o estudo (N=560) durante a 6ª Meia Maratona de Poznan (um dos mais importantes eventos de corrida na Polônia). A base para o desenvolvimento do questionário sobre os motivos para a participação em eventos de corrida foi a divisão de Freyer e Gross (2002). O instrumento de pesquisa foi validado antes do evento examinado (durante a 5ª Meia Maratona de Poznan). Os principais achados dessa pesquisa foram estritamente relacionados com o motivo para manter a condição física e a saúde. O motivo foi importante para todos os grupos etários pesquisados ​​e relatados por 82,1% (460) dos entrevistados. Foi também o mais importante para a faixa etária mais idosa: corredores com idades entre 51 e 70 anos (96% relataram essa motivação como sendo a mais importante). A diferença mais significativa entre corredores jovens e mais velhos é que os jovens são mais frequentemente focados em resultados, enquanto os mais velhos são mais focados no contato com outras pessoas, sendo os aspectos sociais mais importantes para eles. Eles também prestam mais atenção à atratividade da cidade em que eles correm. Enquanto os jovens pensam em alcançar um resultado esportivo, sentir emoções intensas e conquistar reconhecimento aos olhos dos outros.
References
1 Tschopp M, Brunner F. Diseases and overuse injuries of the lower extremities in long distance runners. Z Rheumatol. 2017; 76(5): 443–450. doi:10.1007/s00393-017-0276-6. PMID: 28236094.
2 Trappe S. Marathon runners: how do they age? Sports Med. 2007; 37(4-5): 302-305. doi:10.2165/00007256-200737040-00008. PMID: 17465594.
3 Dróżdż R., Olszewski-Strzyżowski J. Wpływ aktywności fizycznej na styl życia maratończyków. In: Zowiło M, Kosiewicz J, editors. Sport i turystyka w zwierciadle wartości społecznych. Krakow: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego; 2015. p. 469-486.
4 Scheerder J, Breedveld K, Borgers J. Who is doing a run with the running boom? The growth and governance of one of Europe’s most popular sport activities. In: Scheerder J, Breedveld K, editors. Running across Europe: the rise and size of one of the largest sport markets. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan; 2015. p. 1-27.
5 Stempień JR. “Must be healthy, must be sporty” – experiences of Poland and selected European countries: the case of popularity of running. In: Sawicki B, editor. Promotion of healthy lifestyle in European countries. Lublin: Katedra Turystyki i Rekreacji Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Lublinie; 2015a. p. 162-174.
6 Lepers R, Cattagni T. Do older athletes reach limits in their performance during marathon running? Age. 2012; 34(3): 773-781. doi: 10.1007/s11357-011-9271-z. PMID: 21617894.
7 Tanaka H, Seals DR. Endurance exercise performance in masters athletes: age-associated changes and underlying physiological mechanisms. J Physiol (Lond). 2008; 586: 55-63. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.141879.
8 Renfree A, St Clair Gibson A. Influence of different performance levels on pacing strategy during the Women’s World Championship marathon race. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013; 8(3): 279-285. PMID: 23006811.
9 Angus SD. Did recent world record marathon runners employ optimal pacing strategies? J Sports Sci. 2014; 32(1): 31-45. doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.803592, PMID: 23879745. 
10 Skorski S, Abbiss CR. The manipulation of pace within endurance sport. Front Physiol. 2017; 8: 102. doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00102, PMID: 28289392.
11 Sjödin B, Svedenhag J. Applied physiology of marathon running. Sports Med. 1985; 2: 83-99. doi:10.2165/00007256-198502020-00002, PMID: 3890068.
12 Leyk D, Erley O, Gorges W, Ridder D, Ruther T, Wunderlich M, Sievert A, Essfeld D, Piekarski C, Erren T. Performance, training and lifestyle parameters of marathon runners aged 20-80 years: results of the PACE study. Int J Sports Med. 2009; 30(5): 360-365. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1105935. PMID: 19277939.
13 Leyk D, Rüther T, Wunderlich M, Sievert A, Essfeld D, Witzki A, et al. Physical performance in middle age and old age: good news for our sedentary and aging society. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010; 107: 809-16. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2010.0809, PMID: 21151416.
14 Lehto N. Effects of age on marathon finishing time among male amateur runners in Stockholm Marathon 1979-2014. J Sport Health Sci. 2016; 5(3): 349-354. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.008.
15 Jokl P, Sethi PM, Cooper AJ. Master’s performance in the New York City Marathon 1983-1999. Br J Sports Med. 2004; 38: 408-412. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2002.003566, PMID: 15273172.
16 Tanaka H, Seals DR. Invited review: dynamic exercise performance in masters athletes: insight into the effects of primary human aging on physiological functional capacity. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95: 2152-2162. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00320.2003, PMID: 14555676.
17 Leyk D, Erley O, Ridder D, Leurs M, Rüther T, Wunderlich M, et al. Age-related changes in marathon and half-marathon performances. Int J Sports Med. 2007; 28: 513-517. PMID: 17600902.
18 Wright VJ, Perricelli BC. Age-related rates of decline in performance among elite senior athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2008; 36: 443-450. doi:10.1177/0363546507309673 PMID: 18055922.
19 Baker AB, Tang YQ, Turner MJ. Percentage decline in masters super athlete track and field performance with aging. Exp Aging Res. 2003; 29: 47-65 doi:10.1080/03610730303706, PMID: 12735081.
20 Lara B, Salinero JJ, Del Coso J. The relationship between age and running time in elite marathoners is U-shaped Age (Dordr). 2014; 36(2): 1003–1008. doi:10.1007/s11357-013-9614-z, PMID: 24407890.
21 Summers JJ, Sargent GI, Levey AJ, Murray, KD. Middle-aged, non-elite marathon runners: a profile. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1982; 1. doi:10.2466/pms.1982.54.3.963
22 Stempień JR. Polska moda na bieganie w świetle analizy kohort. Perspektywa socjologiczna. In: Zowisło M, Kosiewicz J, editors. Sport i turystyka w zwierciadle wartości społecznych. Kraków: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego; 2015. p. 450-460.
23 Waśkowski Z. Profil polskiego biegacza. Raport z badań, 2014 [acesso 01 mar. 2018]. Disponível em: http://sm.nauka.ehost.pl/pdf/ Biegacze.pdf
24 Waśkowski Z. Rynek biegowy w Polsce. In: Waśkowski Z, editor. Marketing imprez biegowych. Poznań: Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe; 2014. p. 9-17.
25 Stempień JR. , Ladies and gentlemen… On your marks, get set, go! About leisure time sport and the popularity of running among men and women, Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, Folia Sociologica. 2015c; 4:185–209.
26 Ogles, BM., Masters, KS. Older vs. Younger Adult Male Marathon Runners: Participative Motives and Training Habits, Journal of Sport Behavior. 2000; 23(2): 130-143.
27 Freyer, W.; Gross, S. (Eds.) Tourismus und Sport-Events; FIT Forschungsinstitut für Tourismus: Dresden, Germany; 2002.
28 Poczta, J.; Malchrowicz-Mośko, E. Modern Running Events in Sustainable Development—More than Just Taking Care of Health and Physical Condition (Poznan Half Marathon Case Study). Sustainability 2018; 10: 2145. doi:10.3390/su10072145.
29 Malchrowicz-Mośko, E.; Poczta, J. Running as a Form of Therapy Socio-Psychological Functions of Mass Running Events for Men and Women. Int. J. Environ Res. Public Health. 2018; 15: 2262. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102262.
30 Stebbins RA. Cultural tourism as serious leisure. Annals of Tourism Research 1996;23(4): 948-950. doi:10.1016/0160-7383(96)00028-X.
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Publisher Olimpianos
 
Date 2019-05-04
 
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
 
Format application/pdf
 
Identifier http://olimpianos.com.br/journal/index.php/Olimpianos/article/view/42
10.30937/2526-6314.v2n1.id42
 
Source Olimpianos - Journal of Olympic Studies; Vol 2 No 1 (2018); 257-273
Olimpianos - Journal of Olympic Studies; Vol. 2 Núm. 1 (2018); 257-273
Olimpianos - Journal of Olympic Studies; v. 2 n. 1 (2018); 257-273
2526-6314
 
Language eng
 
Relation http://olimpianos.com.br/journal/index.php/Olimpianos/article/view/42/27
 
Rights Copyright (c) 2019 Olimpianos - Journal of Olympic Studies
 

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