Molecular Mechanism of Cholerae Toxin (ctx) in Causing Diarrhea

Oceana Biomedicina Journal

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Field Value
 
Title Molecular Mechanism of Cholerae Toxin (ctx) in Causing Diarrhea
 
Creator Praja, Rian Kusuma Arinta; Udayana University
Rosalina, Reny; Institut Ilmu Kesehatan Bhakti Wiyata Kediri, East Java Indonesia
 
Description Vibrio cholerae is one of the pathogenic bacteria transmitted through contaminated food, especially seafood and contaminated beverages. V. cholerae produces cholerae toxin (ctx) which is encoded by the ctx gene located within its chromosome. This toxin has been recognized as one of the toxins responsible for cholera outbreaks. The mechanism of ctx gene expression is induced by environmental signals such as pH, osmolarity, temperature, bile, amino acids, and CO2. These signals will be a positive transcriptional factor to the ToxR gene that regulates the biogenesis of cholerae toxin. After cholerae toxin has been successfully expressed, V. cholerae uses a type II secretion (T2S) pathway to deliver cholerae toxin to the extracellular environment. Cholerae toxin consists of A and B subunits. The B subunit plays a role in attaching to the receptor Manosialosyl Ganglioside (GM1 ganglioside) and the A subunit plays a role in catalyzing ADP-ribosylation of Gs (stimulatory) proteins and turning them into active condition. The Gs proteins will convert the inactive adenilate cyclase (AC) into active AC. The increase of AC activity will increase the cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) concentration along the cell membrane. The cAMP then causes the active secretion of sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-), potassium (K+), bicarbonate (HCO3-), and water (H2O) out of the cell into the intestinal lumen, resulting in large fluid losses and electrolyte imbalances. Keywords: Vibrio cholerae, cholerae toxin (ctx), ToxR gene, type II secretion (T2S), GM1 ganglioside, adenilate cyclase.
 
Publisher Universitas Hang Tuah
 
Contributor
 
Date 2018-07-30
 
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
Peer-reviewed Article
 
Format application/pdf
 
Identifier http://ocean-biomedicina.hangtuah.ac.id/index.php/journal/article/view/16
10.30649/obj.v1i2.16
 
Source Oceana Biomedicina Journal; Vol 1, No 2 (2018): Oceana Biomedicina Journal; 116-123
2614-0519
10.30649/obj.v1i2
 
Language eng
 
Relation http://ocean-biomedicina.hangtuah.ac.id/index.php/journal/article/view/16/16
 
Rights Copyright (c) 2018 Oceana Biomedicina Journal
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0
 

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