Group Neuropsychological Rehabilitation of institutionalized elderly with Cognitive Impairment no Dementia

Revista Portuguesa de Investigação Comportamental e Social

View Publication Info
 
 
Field Value
 
Title Group Neuropsychological Rehabilitation of institutionalized elderly with Cognitive Impairment no Dementia
Reabilitação Neuropsicológica Grupal de idosos institucionalizados com Défice Cognitivo sem Demência
 
Creator Silva, Giseli Fabiana
Espírito Santo, Helena Maria
Costa, Marina Fernandes
Cardoso, Diana Catarina Marques
Vicente, Filomena
Martins, Sónia do Carmo
Lemos, Laura
 
Subject Psychology
Cognitive impairment no dementia; Neuropsychological group rehabilitation; Depression; Loneliness
Psicologia
Défice cognitivo sem demência; Reabilitação neuropsicológica grupal: Depressão; Solidão
 
Description Background: Aging is often characterized by cognitive impairment that sometimes exceed the expected for normal aging. These changes that do not meet criteria for dementia establish the cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) that, regardless of etiology, has a high conversion rate to dementia. Aims: To investigate the effect of a Group Neuropsychological Rehabilitation Program (GNRP) in cognitive, executive and emotional functioning of institutionalized elderly with CIND. Methods: The sample included 24 elderly individuals, aged between 67 and 92 years. Twelve elderly underwent the GNRP and twelve elderly stayed on a waiting list. The study had a quasi-experimental design and was blind in the re-assessment. The ten interventions took 90 minutes per session, once a week. The pre and post-intervention assessment included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Frontal Assessment Battery, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, and the Loneliness Scale. Results: The ANCOVAs showed a significant effect of the GNRP on the improvement of executive functioning (ɳ2 = 0.26) and feelings of loneliness (ɳ2 = 0.77), both with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the baseline and the post-intervention. The comparison deteriorated in the cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms (p < 0.05), suggesting that the GNRP prevents that deterioration, but ANCOVA was significant only for cognitive functioning (ɳ2 = 0.26). Conclusion: The GNRP in institutionalized elderly with CIND offers promising results and shows efficacy in improving executive functioning and feelings of loneliness. Larger and more diverse samples and the study of the generalization and maintenance of long-term results are now needed.
Contexto: O envelhecimento caracteriza-se frequentemente por alterações cognitivas que, por vezes, excedem o esperado para o envelhecimento normal. Estas alterações que não reúnem critérios de demência constituem o Défice Cognitivo sem Demência (DCSD) que, independente da etiologia, apresenta alta taxa de conversão para a demência. Objetivos: Investigar o efeito de um Programa de Reabilitação Neuropsicológica Grupal (PRNG) no funcionamento cognitivo, executivo e emocional de idosos institucionalizados com DCSD.Métodos: A amostra incluiu 24 idosos institucionalizados com DCSD, com idades entre os 67 e 92 anos. Doze idosos foram submetidos ao PRNG e doze idosos ficaram em lista de espera. O estudo teve um desenho quasi-experimental e cego na reavaliação. O PRNG decorreu em 10 sessões de 90 minutos cada, uma vez por semana. Avaliou-se pré e pós-intervenção através da Avaliação Cognitiva de Montreal, da Avaliação Breve do Estado Mental, da Bateria de Avaliação Frontal, da Escala da Depressão Geriátrica e da Escala da Solidão.Resultados: As ANCOVAs mostraram um efeito relevante do PRNG na melhoria do funcionamento executivo (ƞ2 = 0,26) e dos sentimentos de solidão (ƞ2 = 0,77), ambos com diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05) na comparação entre o antes e depois da implementação do PRNG. No funcionamento cognitivo e na sintomatologia depressiva foi manifesto o agravamento no grupo de comparação (p < 0,05), sugerindo que o PRNG impede esse agravamento, mas a ANCOVA só foi significativa para o funcionamento cognitivo (ɳ2 = 0,26).Conclusão: O PRNG aplicado em idosos institucionalizados com DCSD oferece resultados promissores e evidencia eficácia na melhoria do funcionamento executivo e dos sentimentos de solidão. Impõe-se a replicação em amostras maiores e mais diversificadas e o estudo da generalização e manutenção dos resultados a longo prazo.
 
Publisher Instituto Superior Miguel Torga
 
Contributor

 
Date 2015-09-30
 
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

Plano quasi-experimental


 
Format application/pdf
text/html
text/html
 
Identifier http://rpics.ismt.pt/index.php/ISMT/article/view/21
10.7342/ismt.rpics.2015.1.2.21
 
Source Portuguese Journal of Behavioral and Social Research; v. 1, n. 2 (2015): Setembro; 31-45
Revista Portuguesa de Investigação Comportamental e Social; v. 1, n. 2 (2015): Setembro; 31-45
2183-4938
 
Language por
 
Relation http://rpics.ismt.pt/index.php/ISMT/article/view/21/20
http://rpics.ismt.pt/index.php/ISMT/article/view/21/html
http://rpics.ismt.pt/index.php/ISMT/article/view/21/187
/*ref*/Abrisqueta-Gomez, J., Canali, F., Vieira, V. L. D., Aguiar, A. C. P., Ponce, C. S. C., Brucki, S. M. D., & Bueno, O. F. A. (2004). A longitudinal study of a neuropsychological rehabilitation program in Alzheimer's disease. Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria, 62(3B), 778–783. doi:10.1016/s0197-4580(04)80733-4
/*ref*/Al Hazzouri, A. Z., Vittinghoff, E., Byers, A., Covinsky, K., Blazer, D., Diem, S., Ensrud, K. E., & Jaffe, K. (2014). Long-term cumulative depressive symptom burden and risk of cognitive decline and dementia among very old women. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 69(5), 595–601. doi:10.1093/gerona/glt139
/*ref*/Albert, M. S., DeKosky, S. T., Dickson, D., Dubois, B., Feldman, H. H., Fox, N. C., Gamst, A., Holtzman, D. M., Jagust, W. J., Petersen, R. C., Snyder, P. J., Carrillo, M. C., Thies, B., & Phelps, C. H. (2011). The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 7(3), 270–279. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.03.008
/*ref*/Alves, S. H. V. (2012). Estudo piloto de um programa de reabilitação cognitivo grupal e o seu impacto no funcionamento cognitivo e não-cognitivo em idosos sob resposta social [Pilot study of a group cognitive rehabilitation program and its impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning in the elderly under social response] (Unpublished master's thesis). Instituto Superior Miguel Torga, Coimbra.
/*ref*/Ball, K. K., Berch, D. B., Helmers, K. F., Jobe, J. B., Leveck, M. D., Marsiske, M., Morris, J. N., Rebok, G. W., Smith, D. M., Tennstedt, S. L., Unverzagt, F. W., Willis, S. L., & Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Study Group. (2002). Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(18), 2271–2281. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916176/
/*ref*/Baltes, P. B., & Smith, J. (2003). New frontiers in the future of aging: From successful aging of the young old to the dilemmas of the fourth age. Gerontology, 49(2), 123–135. doi:10.1159/000067946
/*ref*/Baltes, P. B., & Willis, S. L. (1982). Plasticity and enhancement of intellectual functioning in old age: Penn State's Adult Development and Enrichment Project (ADEPT). In F. I. M. Craik & S. Trehub (Eds.), Aging and cognitive processes (pp. 353–390). New York: Plenum Press.
/*ref*/Bernhardt, T., Maurer, K., & Frolich, L. (2002). Influence of a memory training program on attention and memory performance of patients with dementia. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 5(275), 821–831. doi:10.1016/S0197-4580(00)83189-9
/*ref*/Bogner, H. R., Morales, K. H., Reynolds III, C. F., Cary, M. S., & Bruce, M. L. (2012). Course of depression and mortality among older primary care patients. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(10), 895–903. doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e3182331104
/*ref*/Bohlmeijer, E., Valenkamp, M., Westerhof, G., Smit, F., & Cuijpers, P. (2005). Creative reminiscence as an early intervention for depression: Results of a pilot study. Aging & Mental Health, 9(4), 302-304. doi:10.1080/13607860500089567
/*ref*/Boyke, J., Driemeyer, J., Gaser, C., Buchel, C., & May, A. (2008). Training-induced brain structure changes in the elderly. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 7031–7035. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0742-08.2008.
/*ref*/Brown, R. M., Robertson, E. M., & Press, D. Z. (2009). Sequence skill acquisition and off-line learning in normal aging. PLoS ONE, 4(8), 1–5. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006683
/*ref*/Buchman, A. S., Boyle, P. A., Wilson, R. S., James, B. D., Leurgans, S. E., Arnold, S. E., & Bennet, D. A. (2010). Loneliness and the rate of motor decline in old age: The rush memory and aging project, a community-based cohort study. BMC Geriatrics, 10(77), 1-8. doi:10.1186/1471- 2318-10-77
/*ref*/Byers, A. L., Vittinghoff, E., Lui, L.-Y., Hoang, T., Blazer, D. G., Covinsky, K. E., Ensrud, K. E., Cauley, J. A., Hillier, T. A., Fredman, L., & Jaffe, K. (2012). Twenty-year depressive trajectories among older women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(10), 1073–1079. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2012.43
/*ref*/Calero, M. D., & Navarro, E. (2007). Cognitive plasticity as a modulating variable on the effects of memory training in elderly persons. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22(1), 63–72. doi:10.1016/j.acn.2006.06.020
/*ref*/Chen, C., Dong, Y., Merchant, R., Collinson, S., Ting, E., Quah, S. L., Chan, Y. H., & Venketasubramanian, N. (2011). The Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is superior to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in detecting patient's with moderate cognitive impairment, no-dementia (CIND) and at high risk of dementia. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 7(4), S240–S241. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.05.682
/*ref*/Chertkow, H., Massoud, F., Nasreddine, Z., Belleville, S., Joanette, Y., Bocti, C., Drolet, V., Kirk, J., Freedman, M., & Bergman, H. (2008). Diagnosis and treatment of dementia: 3. Mild cognitive impairment and cognitive impairment without dementia. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 178(10), 1273–1285. doi:10.1503/cmaj.070797
/*ref*/Chertkow, H., Nasreddine, Z., Joanette, Y., Drolet, V., Kirk, J., Massoud, F., Belleville, S., & Bergman, H. (2007). Mild cognitive impairment and cognitive impairment, no dementia: Part A, concept and diagnosis. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 3(4), 266–282. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2007.07.013
/*ref*/Christensen, A.-L., & Uzzell, B. P. (2000). International handbook of neuropsychological rehabilitation. New York: Springer Science+Business Media.
/*ref*/Churchill, J. D., Galvez, R., Colcombe, S. J., Swain, R. A., Kramer, A. F., & Greenough, W. T. (2002). Exercise, experience and the aging brain. Neurobiology of Aging, 23(5), 941–955. doi:10.1016/s0197-4580(02)00028-3
/*ref*/Clare, L., & Woods, B. (2003). Cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive training for early-stage Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, 1–39. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003260
/*ref*/Clare, L., & Woods, R.T. (2001). Cognitive rehabilitation in dementia: A special issue of neuropsychological reabilitation. New York: Psychological Press.
/*ref*/Clare, L., Linden, D. E. J., Woods, R. T., Whitaker, R., Evans, S. J., Parkinson, C. H., van Paasschen, J., Nelis, S. M., Hoare, Z., Yuen, K. S., & Rugg, M. D. (2010). Goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation for people with early-stage Alzheimer disease: A single-blind randomized controlled trial of clinical efficacy. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(10), 928–939. doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181d5792a
/*ref*/Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis (2nd ed., pp. 16-25, 283). New Jersey: Psychology Press.
/*ref*/Conrad, N., Doering, B. K., Rief, W., & Exner, C. (2010). Looking beyond the importance of life goals. The personal goal model of subjective well-being in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Clinical Rehabilitation, 24(5), 431–443. doi:10.1177/0269215509358930
/*ref*/Costa, M. D., Espirito-Santo, H., Simões, S. C., Correia, A. R., Almeida, R., Ferreira, L., Caldas, L., Pena, I. T., Costa, A., Simões, D., Daniel, F., & Lemos, L. (2013). Correlates of elderly loneliness. European Psychiatry, 28(Suppl. 1). doi:10.1016/S0924-9338(13)76559-3
/*ref*/Dahlin, E., Nyberg, L., Bäckman, L., & Neely, A. S. (2008). Plasticity of executive functioning in young and older adults: Immediate training gains, transfer, and long-term maintenance. Psychology and Aging, 23(4), 720–730. doi:10.1037/a0014296
/*ref*/Dubois, B., Slachevsky, A., Litvan, L., & Pillon, B. (2000). The FAB: A Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside. Neurology, 55(11), 1621-1626. doi:10.1212/WNL.55.11.1621
/*ref*/Duffau, H. (2006). Brain plasticity: From pathophysiological mechanisms to therapeutic applications. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 13(9), 885–897. doi:10.1016/j.jocn.2005.11.045.
/*ref*/Ellis, P. D. (2010). The essential guide to effect sizes: Statistical power, meta-analysis, and the interpretation of research results. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
/*ref*/Espirito-Santo, H., & Daniel, F. B. (2015). Calcular e apresentar tamanhos do efeito em trabalhos científicos (1): As limitações do p < 0,05 na análise de diferenças de médias de dois grupos [Calculating and reporting effect sizes on scientific papers (1): p < 0.05 limitations in the analysis of mean differences of two groups]. Revista Portuguesa de Investigação Comportamental e Social, 1(1), 3–16. doi:10.7342/ismt.rpics.2015.1.1.14
/*ref*/Espírito-Santo, H., & Lemos, L. (2012). Manual de Reabilitação Neuropsicológica Grupal. Coimbra: Instituto Superior Miguel Torga.
/*ref*/Espirito-Santo, H., Lemos, L., Torres-Pena, I., Vicente, F., Silva, F., Costa, M., Marques, M., Simões, S., Guadalupe, S., & Daniel, F. B. (2015). Bateria de avaliação frontal (FAB) [Frontal Assessment Battery]. In M. Simões, I. Santana; & Grupo de Estudos de Envelhecimento Cerebral e Demência. (Eds.), Escalas e testes na demência (3rd ed., pp. 68-75). Porto Salvo: Novartis.
/*ref*/Fama, R., & Sullivan, E. V. (2015). Thalamic structures and associated cognitive functions: Relations with age and aging. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 54, 29–37. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.03.008
/*ref*/Fei, M., Qu, Y. C., Wang, T., Yin, J., Bai, J. X., & Ding, Q. H. (2009). Prevalence and distribution of cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) among the aged population and the analysis of socio-demographic characteristics: The community-based cross-sectional study. Alzheimer Disease Association Disorder, 23(2), 130-138. doi:10.1097/WAD.0b013e318190a59d
/*ref*/Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed., p. 580). London: Sage.
/*ref*/Fjell, A. M., & Walhovd, K. B. (2010). Structural brain changes in aging: Courses, causes and cognitive consequences. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 21(3), 187–221. doi:10.1515/REVNEURO.2010.21.3.187
/*ref*/Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189-198. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6
/*ref*/Fratiglioni, L., Paillard-Borg, S., & Winblad, B. (2004). An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. The Lancet Neurology, 3(6), 343–353. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(04)00767-7
/*ref*/Freitas, S., Simões, M. R., Alves, L., & Santana, I. (2015). Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). In M. R. Simões, I. Santana, & Grupo de Estudos de Envelhecimento Cerebral e Demência. (Eds.), Escalas e testes na demência (3rd ed., pp. 24-29). Porto Salvo: Novartis
/*ref*/Fried, L. P., Carlson, M. C., Freedman, M., Frick, K. D., Glass, T. A., Hill, J., McGill, S., Rebok, G. W., Seeman, T., Tielsch, J., Wasik, B. A., & Zeger, S. (2004). A social model for health promotion for an aging population: Initial evidence on the Experience Corps model. Journal of Urban Health, 81(1), 64–78. doi:10.1093/jurban/jth094
/*ref*/Fritsch, T., McClendon, M. J., Smyth, K. A., & Ogrocki, P. K. (2002). Effects of educational attainment and occupational status on cognitive and functional decline in persons with Alzheimer-type dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 14(4), 347-363. doi:10.1017/s1041610202008554
/*ref*/Gaitán, A., Garolera, M., Cerulla, N., Chico, G., Rodriguez-Querol, M., & Canela-Soler, J. (2013). Efficacy of an adjunctive computer-based cognitive training program in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(1), 91–99. doi:10.1002/gps.3794
/*ref*/Ganguli, M., Du, Y., Dodge, H. H., Ratcliff, G. G., & Chang, C. C. (2006). Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in late life: A prospective epidemiological study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 153-160. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.2.153
/*ref*/Gold, D. A. (2012). An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34(1), 11–34. doi:10.1080/13803395.2011.614598
/*ref*/Graham, J. E., Rockwood, K., Beattie, B. L., Eastwood, R., Gauthier, S., & Tuokko, H. (1997). Prevalence and severity of cognitive impairment with and without dementia in an elderly population. Lancet, 349, 1793-1796. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(97)01007-6
/*ref*/Gure, T. R., Langa, K. M., Fisher, G. G., Piette, J. D., & Plassman, B. L. (2013). Functional limitations in older adults who have cognitive impairment without dementia. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 26(2), 78–85. doi:10.1177/0891988713481264
/*ref*/Hertzog, C., Kramer, A. F., & Wilson, R. S. (2008). Enrichment effects on adult cognitive development can the functional capacity of older adults be preserved and enhanced?. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(1), 1–65. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01034.x
/*ref*/Jean, L., Bergeron, M.-E., Thivierge, S., & Simard, M. (2010). Cognitive intervention programs for individuals with mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of the literature. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(4), 281–296. doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181c37ce9
/*ref*/Jekel, K., Damian, M., Wattmo, C., Hausner, L., Bullock, R., Connelly, P. J., Dubois, B., Eriksdotter, M., Ewers, M., Graessel, E., Kramberger, M. G., Law, E., Mecocci, P., Molinuevo, J. L., Nygård, L., Olde-Rikkert, M. G., Orgogozo, J. M., Pasquier, F., Peres, K., Salmon, E., Sikkes, S. A., Sobow, T., Spiegel, R., Tsolaki, M., Winblad, B., & Frölich, L. (2015). Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: A systematic review. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, 7(1), 17. doi:10.1186/s13195-015-0099-0
/*ref*/Kahokehr, A., Siegert, R. J., & Weatherall, M. (2004). The frequency of executive cognitive impairment in elderly rehabilitation inpatients. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 17(2), 68–72. doi:10.1177/0891988704264536
/*ref*/Kitwood, T. (1997). Dementia reconsidered: The person comes first. Open University Press, 20, 7-8.
/*ref*/Krampe, R.T. (2002). Aging, expertise and fine motor movement. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, 769–776. doi:10.1016/s0149-7634(02)00064-7
/*ref*/Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., & Loring, D. W. (2004). Neuropsychological Assessment (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
/*ref*/Liesbeth, W. A., Prins, J. B., Vernooij-Dassen, M. J. F. J., Wijnen, H. H., Olde Rikkert, M. G. M., & Kessels, R. P. C. (2011). Group therapy for patients with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others: Results of a waiting-list controlled trial. Gerontology, 57(5), 444–454. doi:10.1159/000315933
/*ref*/Lin, F. R., Yaffe, K., Xia, J., Xue, Q.-L., Harris, T. B., Purchase-Helzner, E., Satterfield, S. Ayonayon, H. N., Ferrucci, L., Simonsick, E. M., & Health ABC Study Group. (2013). Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(4), 293–299. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.1868
/*ref*/Lindsay, J., Sykes, E., McDowell, I., Verreault, R., & Laurin, D. (2004). More than the epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease: Contributions of the Canadian study of health and aging. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(2), 83-91. doi:10.1177/070674370404900202
/*ref*/Lopez, O. L. (2013). Mild cognitive impairment. Continuum, 19(2), 411–424. doi:10.1212/01.CON.0000429175.29601.97
/*ref*/Lövdén, M., Bäckman, L., Lindenberger, U., Schaefer, S., & Schmiedek, F. (2010). A theoretical framework for the study of adult cognitive plasticity. Psychological Bulletin, 136(4), 659–676. doi:10.1037/a0020080
/*ref*/Morgado, J., Rocha, C. S., Maruta, C., Guerreiro, M., & Martins, I. P. (2009). Novos valores normativos do mini-mental state examination [New normative values of mini-mental state examination]. Sinapse, 9(2), 10–16. Retrieved from http://www.spneurologia.com/publicacoes/sinapse/ano/2009
/*ref*/Naismith, S. L., Longley, W. A., Scott, E. M., & Hickie, I. A. (2007). Disability in major depression related to self rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: A preliminary study. Biomed Central Psychiatry, 7(32), 1-7. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-7-32
/*ref*/Nasreddine, Z., Phillips, N., Bédirian, V., Charbonneau, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I., Cummings, J. L., & Chertkow, H. (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: A brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(4), 695-699. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53221.x
/*ref*/Noack, H., Lövdén, M., Schmiedek, F., & Lindenberger, U. (2009). Cognitive plasticity in adulthood and old age: Gauging the generality of cognitive intervention effects. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 27(5), 435–453. doi:10.3233/RNN-2009-0496
/*ref*/Noice, H., & Noice, T. (2008). An arts intervention for older adults living in subsidized retirement homes. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 16(1), 56–79. doi:10.1080/13825580802233400
/*ref*/Noice, H., Noice, T., & Staines, G. (2004). A short-term intervention to enhance cognitive and affective functioning in older adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 16(4), 562–585. doi:10.1177/0898264304265819
/*ref*/Olazarán, J., Reisberg, B., Clare, L., Cruz, I., Peña-Casanova, J., Del-Ser, T., Woods, B., Beck, C., Auer, S., Lai, C., Spector, A., Fazio, S., Bond, J., Kivipelto, M., Brodaty, H., Rojo, J. M., Collins, H., Teri, L., Mittelman, M., Orrell, M., Feldman, H. H., & Muñiz, R. (2010). Nonpharmacological therapies in Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review of efficacy. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 30(2), 161–178. doi:10.1159/000316119
/*ref*/Parikh, P. K., Troyer, A. K., Maione, A. M., & Murphy, K. J. (2015). The impact of memory change on daily life in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. The Gerontologist, 56(5), 877-885. doi:10.1093/geront/gnv030
/*ref*/Peters, M. E., Rosenberg, P. B., Steinberg, M., Norton, M. C., Welsh-Bohmer, K. A., Hayden, K. M., Breitner, J., Tschanz, J. T., Lyketsos, C. G., & Cache County Investigators. (2013). Neuropsychiatric symptoms as risk factors for progression from CIND to dementia: The Cache County Study. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(11), 1116-1124. doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.049
/*ref*/Petersen, R. C., Caracciolo, B., Brayne, C., Gauthier, S., Jelic, V., & Fratiglioni, L. (2014). Mild cognitive impairment: A concept in evolution. Journal of Internal Medicine, 275(3), 214–228. doi:10.1111/joim.12190
/*ref*/Pettigrew, C., & Martin, R. C. (2014). Cognitive declines in healthy aging: Evidence from multiple aspects of interference resolution. Psychology and Aging, 29(2), 187–204. doi:10.1037/a0036085
/*ref*/Plassman, B. L., Langa, K. M., Fisher, G. G., Heeringa, S. G., Weir, D. R., Ofstedal, M. B., Burke, J. R., Hurd, M. D., Potter, G. G., Rodgers, W. L., Steffens, D. C., McArdle, J. J., Willis, R. J., & Wallace, R. B. (2008). Prevalence of cognitive impairment without dementia in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(6), 427–434. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-148-6-200803180-00005
/*ref*/Pocinho, M. T. S., Farate, C., Amaral Dias, C., Lee, T. T., & Yesavage, J. A. (2009). Clinical and psychometric validation of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) for portuguese elders. Clinical Gerontologist, 32(2), 223–236. doi:10.1080/07317110802678680
/*ref*/Pocinho, M., Farate, C., & Dias, C. A. (2010). Validação psicométrica da escala UCLA-Loneliness para idosos portugueses [Psychometric Validation of the UCLA-Loneliness Scale for Portuguese Elderly]. Interações, 10(18), 65–77. Retrieved from http://www.interacoes-ismt.com/index.php/revista/article/view/304
/*ref*/Poletti, M., Frosini, D., Pagni, C., Baldacci, F., Giuntini, M., Mazzucchi, S., Tognoni, G., Lucetti, C., Del-Dotto, P., Ceravolo, R., & Bonuccelli, U. (2013). The relationship between motor symptom lateralization and cognitive performance in newly diagnosed drug-naïve patients with Parkinson's disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (Neuropsychology, Development and Cognition: Section a, 35(2), 124-131. doi:10.1080/13803395.2012.751966
/*ref*/Potvin, O., Hudon, C., Grenier, S., & Préville, M. (2010). Non-essential symptoms of depression and cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) in community-dwelling elders without dysphoria or anhedonia. International Psychogeriatrics, 22(8), 1344–1352. doi:10.1017/S1041610210001419
/*ref*/Prigatano, G. P. (1997). Learning from our successes and failures: Reflections and comments on “cognitive rehabilitation: How it is and how it might be.” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 3(5), 497–499.
/*ref*/Prolo, P., Fanto, F., Santoro, M., & Tisci, C. (2004). P1-328 Long-term reality orientation therapy (ROT) in subjects with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Neurobiology of Aging, 25(Suppl. 2), 190-191. doi:10.1016/s0197-4580(04)80641-9
/*ref*/Pustokhanova, L., & Morozova, E. (2013). Cognitive impairment and hypothymia in post stroke patients. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 325(1-2), 43–45. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2012.11.013
/*ref*/Rajeswaran, J. (2013). Neuropsychological rehabilitation: Principles and applications. London: Elsevier Inc.
/*ref*/Reisberg, B., Ferris, S. H., de Leon, M. J., Sinaiko, E., Franssen, E., Kluger, A., Mir, P., Borenstein, J., George, A. E., Shulman, E., Steinberg, G., & Cohen, J. (1988). Stage‐specific behavioral, cognitive, and in vivo changes in community residing subjects with age‐associated memory impairment and primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type. Drug Development Research, 15(3), 101–114. doi:10.1002/ddr.430150203
/*ref*/Ribeiro, P. F. M., Ventura-Antunes, L., Gabi, M., Mota, B., Grinberg, L. T., Farfel, J. M., Ferretti-Rebustini, R. E., Leite, R. E., Filho, W. J., & Herculano-Houzel, S. (2013). The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: Neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the gray matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 7(28), 1–20. doi:10.3389/fnana.2013.00028
/*ref*/Roberts, R. O., Geda, Y. E., Knopman, D. S., Cha, R. H., Pankratz, V. S., Boeve, B. F., Tangalos, E. G., Ivnik, R. J., Mielke, M. M., & Petersen, R. C. (2013). Cardiac disease associated with increased risk of nonamnestic cognitive impairment: Stronger effect on women. JAMA Neurology, 70(3), 374–382. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.607
/*ref*/Rozzini, L., Costardi, D., Chilovi, B. V., Franzoni, S., Trabucchi, M., & Padovani, A. (2007). Efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive impairment treated with cholinesterase inhibitors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(4), 356–360. doi:10.1002/gps.1681.
/*ref*/Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Ferguson, M. L. (1978). Developing a measure of loneliness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42(3), 290–294. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4203_11
/*ref*/Scarmeas, N., Levy, G., Tang, M. X., Manly, J., & Stern, Y. (2001). Influence of leisure activity on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 57(12), 2236–2242. doi:10.1212/WNL.57.12.2236
/*ref*/Silver, H., Goodman, C., Gur, R. C., Gur, R. E., & Bilker, W. B. (2011). “Executive” functions and normal aging: Selective impairment in conditional exclusion compared to abstraction and inhibition. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 31(1), 53–62. doi:10.1159/000322568
/*ref*/Smith, G., & Rush, B. K. (2006). Normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. In D. K. Attix & K. A. Welsh-Bohmer (Ed.), Geriatric neuropsychology assessment and intervention (pp. 27-55). New York: Guilford Press.
/*ref*/Sohlberg, M. M., & Mateer, C. A. (2001). Cognitive rehabilitation: An integrative neuropsychological approach. New York: Guilford Press.
/*ref*/Sousa, M. (2014). The impact of four stimulation sessions in older people in retirement homes. Iberian Journal of Clinical and Forensic Neuroscience 2(4), 537-551. Retrieved from http://issuu.com/luisalbertomaia/docs/final_4_ijcfn
/*ref*/St. John, P. D., & Montgomery, P. R. (2010). Cognitive impairment and life satisfaction in older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25(8), 814–821. doi:10.1002/gps.2422
/*ref*/Stein, J., Luppa, M., Luck, T., Maier, W., Wagner, M., Daerr, M., & van den Bussche, H. (2012). The assessment of changes in cognitive functioning: Age-, education-, and gender-specific reliable change indices for older adults tested on the CERAD-NP battery: Results of the German study on ageing, cognition, and dementia in primary care patients. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(1), 84–97. doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e318209dd08
/*ref*/Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A Compendium of neuropsychological tests. Administration, norms, and commentary (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
/*ref*/Sutter, C., Zöllig, J., & Martin, M. (2013). Plasticity of verbal fluency in older adults: A 90-minute telephone-based intervention. Gerontology, 59(1), 53–63. doi:10.1159/000342199
/*ref*/Teng, E., Tassniyom, K., & Lu, P. H. (2012). Reduced quality-of-life ratings in mild cognitive impairment: Analyses of subject and informant responses. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(12), 1016–1025. doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e31826ce640
/*ref*/Thompson, G., & Foth, D. (2005). Cognitive-training programs for older adults: What are they and can they enhance mental fitness?. Educational Gerontology, 31(8), 603–626. doi:10.1080/03601270591003364
/*ref*/Tranter, L. J., & Koutstaal, W. (2008). Age and flexible thinking: An experimental demonstration of the beneficial effects of increased cognitively stimulating activity on fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 15(2), 184–207. doi:10.1080/13825580701322163
/*ref*/Tsolaki, M., Kounti, F., Agogiatou, C., Poptsi, E., Bakoglidou, E., Zafeiropoulou, M., Soumbourou, A., Nikolaidou, E., Batsila, G., Siambani, A., Nakou, S., Mouzakidis, C., Tsiakiri, A., Zafeiropoulos, S., Karagiozi, K., Messini, C., Diamantidou, A., & Vasiloglou, M. (2011). Effectiveness of nonpharmacological approaches in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Neurodegenerative Diseases, 8(3), 138–145. doi:10.1159/000320575
/*ref*/Tuokko, H., & Frerichs, R. J. (2000). Cognitive impairment with no dementia (CIND): Longitudinal studies, the findings, and the issues. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 14(4), 504-25. doi:10.1076/clin.14.4.504.7200
/*ref*/Tuokko, H., Frerichs, R., Graham, J., Rockwood, K., Kristjansson, B., Fisk, J., Bergman, H., Kozma, A., & McDowell, I. (2003). Five-year follow-up of cognitive impairment with no dementia. Archives of Neurology, 60, 577-582. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.4.577
/*ref*/Unverzagt, F. W., Kasten, L., Johnson, K. E., Rebok, G. W., Marsiske, M., Koepke, K. M., Elias, J. W., Morris, J. N., Willis, S. L., Ball, K., Rexroth, D. F., Smith, D. M., Wolinsky, F. D., & Tennstedt, S. L. (2007). Effect of memory impairment on training outcomes in ACTIVE. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 13(6), 953–960. doi:10.1017/S1355617707071512
/*ref*/van der Linde, R., Stephan, B. C., Matthews, F. E., Brayne, C., Savva, G. M., & The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. (2010). Behavioural and psychological symptoms in the older population without dementia - Relationship with socio-demographics, health and cognition. BMC Geriatrics, 10(1), 87. doi:10.1186/1471-2318-10-87
/*ref*/Vance, D., Dawson, J., Wadley, V., Edwards, J., Roenker, D., Rizzo, M., & Ball, K. K. (2007). The accelerate study: The longitudinal effect of speed of processing training on cognitive performance of older adults. Rehabilitation Psychology, 52(1), 89–96. doi:10.1037/0090-5550.52.1.89
/*ref*/Vicente, F., Espirito-Santo, H., Cardoso, D., da Silva, F., Costa, M., Martins, S., Torres-Pena, I., Pascoal, V., Rodrigues, F., Pinto, A., Guadalupe, S., Testa-Vicente, H., & Lemos, L. (2014). Estudo longitudinal dos fatores associados à evolução de sintomas depressivos em idosos institucionalizados [Longitudinal study of factors associated with the development of depressive symptoms in institutionalized elderly]. Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria, 63(4), 308–316. doi:10.1590/0047-2085000000039
/*ref*/Walhovd, K. B., Fjell, A. M., Reinvang, I., Lundervold, A., Dale, A. M., Eilertsen, D. E., Quinn, B. T., Salat, D., Makris, N., & Fischl, B. (2005). Effects of age on volumes of cortex, white matter and subcortical structures. Neurobiology of Aging, 26(9), 1261–1270. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.05.020
/*ref*/Wilson, B. A. (2008). Neuropsychological rehabilitation. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 141–162. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.4.022007.141212.
/*ref*/Wilson, R. S., Mendes De Leon, C. F., Barnes, L. L., Schneider, J. A., Bienias, J. L., Evans, D. A., & Bennett, D. A. (2002). Participation in cognitively stimulating activities and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(6), 742–748. doi:10.1001/jama.287.6.742
/*ref*/Winblad, B., Palmer, K., & Kivipelto, M. (2004). Mild cognitive impairment–beyond controversies, towards a consensus: Report of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256(3), 240–246. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01380.x
/*ref*/Winocur, G., Palmer, H., Dawson, D., Binns, M. A., Bridges, K., & Stuss, D. T. (2007). Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: An evaluation of psychosocial factors. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 13(1), 153–165. doi:10.1017/S135561770707018X
/*ref*/Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., & Leirer, V. O. (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17(1), 37-42. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(82)90033-4
/*ref*/Zöllig, J., Mattli, F., Sutter, C., Aurelio, A., & Martin, M. (2012). Plasticity of prospective memory through a familiarization intervention in old adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 19(1-2), 168–194. doi:10.1080/13825585.2011.633160
 
Coverage

> 65 years
Coimbra

Idosos
 
Rights Copyright (c) 2015 Giseli Fabiana Silva, Helena Maria Espírito Santo, Marina Fernandes Costa, Diana Catarina Marques Cardoso, Filomena Vicente, Sónia do Carmo Martins, & Laura Lemos
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0
 

Contact Us

The PKP Index is an initiative of the Public Knowledge Project.

For PKP Publishing Services please use the PKP|PS contact form.

For support with PKP software we encourage users to consult our wiki for documentation and search our support forums.

For any other correspondence feel free to contact us using the PKP contact form.

Find Us

Twitter

Copyright © 2015-2018 Simon Fraser University Library