Aspirin resistance: a latent problem of high risk

Medicina y Laboratorio

View Publication Info
Field Value
Title Aspirin resistance: a latent problem of high risk
Resistencia a la aspirina: un problema latente de alto riesgo
Creator Campuzano-Maya, Germán
Subject : aspirin history, acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin, platelet aggregation inhibitors, aspirin resistance, primary prevention, secondary prevention, cardiovascular diseases, cere-brovascular disorders, monitoring methods of antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, aspirin resistance detection.
historia de la aspirina, ácido acetilsalicílico, aspirina, inhibidores de agregación plaquetaria, resistencia a la aspirina, métodos de seguimiento de la antiagregación plaquetaria con aspirina, detección de la resistencia a la aspirina.
Description Aspirin is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases; however, several studies about in vitro platelet response to aspirin showed that this response is variable, with some nonresponding patients or had aspirin resistance. The aspirin resistance may be "clinical" or "by laboratory". Clinical aspirin resistance is defined as the failure to prevent the occurrence of atherothrombotic ischemic events in patients who were administered. Laboratory resistance to aspirin is defined as the failure of aspirin to inhibit thromboxane A2 production by platelets or to inhibit platelet activation by a thromboxane A2-dependent pathway. To date there is no general method for ex vivo assessment of platelet activation or the degree of platelets activation after administration of aspirin, and data concerning the clinical impact of aspirin resistance are conflicting. Therefore, it is not possible to suggest a specific guidelines for treating patients with high levels of platelet activation or with a low level of platelets inhibition after aspirin treatment. The objective of this review is to present data from clinical and laboratory studies related to aspirin resistance, and to discuss possible causes, clinical importance, and forms of clinical management of this resistance.
La aspirina es la piedra angular del tratamiento en pacientes con enfermedades cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares; sin embargo, varios estudios sobre la respuesta in vitro de las plaquetas a la administración de aspirina mostraron que esta respuesta es variable, encontrando algunos pacientes con falta de respuesta o resistencia a la aspirina. La resistencia a la aspirina puede ser ”clínica” o "de laboratorio". La resistencia clínica a la aspirina se define como el fracaso para evitar la aparición de los episodios isquémicos aterotrombóticos en pacientes a los que se les administra. La resistencia de laboratorio a la aspirina se define como el fracaso de la aspirina para inhibir la producción de tromboxano A2 por las plaquetas o para inhibir la activación de las plaquetas dependiente de la producción de tromboxano A2. Hasta el momento no hay ningún método general para la evaluación ex vivo de la activación plaquetaria o del grado de activación de las plaquetas después de la administración de aspirina, y los datos relativos al impacto clínico de la resistencia a la aspirina son conflictivos. Por esto, no es posible sugerir directrices específicas para el tratamiento de pacientes que muestran altos niveles de activación plaquetaria o un bajo nivel de inhibición de las plaquetas después del tratamiento con aspirina. El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar los datos de estudios clínicos y de laboratorio que están relacionadas con la resistencia a la aspirina y discutir las posibles causas, importancia clínica y formas de manejo clínico de dicha resistencia.
Publisher EDIMECO S.A.
Date 2016-01-01
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Format application/pdf
Source Medicina & Laboratorio; Vol. 22 No. 1-2 (2016); 13-54
Medicina y Laboratorio; Vol. 22 Núm. 1-2 (2016); 13-54
Language spa
/*ref*/World Health Organization. World Heart Federation. Global atlas of cardiovascular disease prevention and control 2011. Geneva: WHO; 2011 [consultado diciembre 20 2015]. Disponible en:
/*ref*/Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S, Anand S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: part I: general considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization. Circulation 2001; 104: 2746-2753.
/*ref*/Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S, Anand S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part II: variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies. Circulation 2001; 104: 2855-2864.
/*ref*/García G, Ronald G, P. L-J. Uso de aspirina en la prevención de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Rev Colomb Cardiol 2008; 15: 223-230.
/*ref*/World Health Organization. Disease and injury country estimates, Burden of Disease 2008. Geneva: WHO; 2004 [consultado5 Ene 2014]. Disponible en: burden disease/estimates country/en/.
/*ref*/López-Jaramillo P, Casas JP, Bautista L, Serrano NC, Morillo CA. An integrated proposal to explain the epidemic of cardiovascular disease in a developing country. From socioeconomic factors to free radicals. Cardiology 2001; 96: 1-6.
/*ref*/Machado-Alba JE, García S, Calvo-Torres LF, Bañol-Giraldo AM. Patrones de prescripción del ácido salicílico. Rev Colomb Cardiol 2015; 22: 127-135.
/*ref*/Weisman SM, Graham DY. Evaluation of the benefits and risks of low-dose aspirin in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 2197-2202.
/*ref*/Srinath Reddy K, Katan MB. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Public Health Nutr 2004; 7: 167-186.
/*ref*/Thompson PD, Buchner D, Pina IL, Balady GJ, Williams MA, Marcus BH, et al. Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention) and the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity). Circulation 2003; 107: 3109-3116.
/*ref*/Rigotti NA, Pasternak RC. Cigarette smoking and coronary heart disease: risks and management. Cardiol Clin 1996; 14: 51-68.
/*ref*/Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, Matthews DR, Manley SE, Cull CA, et al. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000; 321: 405-412.
/*ref*/Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N, Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists C. Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Lancet 2000; 356: 1955-1964.
/*ref*/Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, Jr., et al. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension 2003; 42: 1206-1252.
/*ref*/National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection E, Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in A. Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002; 106: 3143-3421.
/*ref*/Gluckman TJ, Baranowski B, Ashen MD, Henrikson CA, McAllister M, Braunstein JB, et al. A practical and evidence-based approach to cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 1490-1500.
/*ref*/WHO. []. Accessed 3 December 2015.
/*ref*/Awtry EH, Loscalzo J. Aspirin. Circulation 2000; 101: 1206-1218.
/*ref*/Lévesque H, Lafont O. L'aspirine a travers les siecles: rappel historique. Rev Med Interne 2000; 21: 8s-17s.
/*ref*/Ebers G. Papyros Ebers (Ebers Papyrus). Disponible en Consultado diciembre 2015. .
/*ref*/Stone E. An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of agues. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 1763; 53: 195-200.
/*ref*/Buchner A. Über das Rigatellische Fiebermittel und über eine in der Weidenrinde entdeckte alcaloidische Substanz" (On Rigatelli's antipyretic [i.e., anti-fever drug] and on an alkaloid substance discovered in willow bark). Repertorium für die Pharmacie 1828; 29: 405-420.
/*ref*/Leroux H. Découvert de la salicine. J de Chimie Medicale 1830; 6: 341.
/*ref*/von Gerhardt C. Untersuchungen über die wasserfreien organischen säuren. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 1853; 87: 149-179.
/*ref*/Kolbe H. Über synthese der salicylsäure. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 1860; 113: 125-127.
/*ref*/Kolbe H, Lautemann E. Über die constitution und basicität der salicylsäure. Liebig's Annalen der Chemie 1860; 115: 157-206.
/*ref*/Dreser H. Pharmakologisches über aspirin (acetylsalicylsaüre). Archiv für die Gesammte Physiologie des Menschen und der Thiere (Pflügers)Pfluger's Arch 1899; 76: 306 -318.
/*ref*/Binz C. Vorlesungen über pharmakologie (ed 2nd edition). Berlin; 1891.
/*ref*/Link KP, Overman RS, Sullivan LOR, Nuebruier CF, Scheel LD. Studies on hemorrhagic sweet clover disease. J Biol Chem 1943; 147: 463-473.
/*ref*/Cahn L. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) as a cause of bleeding. J Oral Surg (Chic) 1945; 3: 336-338.
/*ref*/Schaeffer JH, Blaisdell ER, Herrick SE. Hemorrhagic tendency of aspirin therapy: a case report. J Maine Med Assoc 1951; 42: 262-264.
/*ref*/Smith JM, Mackinnon J. Aetiology of aspirin bleeding. Lancet 1951; 2: 569-570.
/*ref*/Singer R. Acetylsalicylic acid, a probable cause for secondary post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage. Arch Otolaryngol 1945; 42: 19-20.
/*ref*/Rapp G. Cause of delayed hemorrhage after tooth extraction. J Am Dent Assoc 1947; 34: 484.
/*ref*/Muir A, Cossar IA. Aspirin and ulcer. Br Med J 1955; 2: 7-12.
/*ref*/Govan CD, Jr. The effect of salicylate administration on the prothrombin time. J Pediatr 1946; 29: 629-636.
/*ref*/Gibson P. Salicylic acid for coronary thrombosis? Lancet 1948; 1: 965.
/*ref*/Gibson PC. Aspirin in the treatment of vascular diseases. Lancet 1949; 2: 1172-1174.
/*ref*/Craven LL. Acetylsalicylic acid, possible preventive of coronary thrombosis. Ann West Med Surg 1950; 4: 95-99.
/*ref*/Craven LL. Coronary thrombosis can be prevented. J Insur Med 1950; 5: 47-48.
/*ref*/Craven LL. Experiences with aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) in the nonspecific prophylaxis of coronary thrombosis. Miss Valley Med J 1953; 75: 38-44.
/*ref*/Craven LL. Prevention of coronary and cerebral thrombosis. Miss Valley Med J 1956; 78: 213-215.
/*ref*/Times asst. editor Earl Craven dies. Los Angeles Times. 1956 Jan 9;A1.
/*ref*/Mann CC, M.L. P. The aspirin wars: Money, medicine and 100 years of rampant competition. New York, NY: Alfred A Knopf Inc; 1991:1-420.: New York, NY.
/*ref*/Vane JR. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs. Nat New Biol 1971; 231: 232-235.
/*ref*/Fuster V, Sweeny JM. Aspirin: a historical and contemporary therapeutic overview. Circulation 2011; 123: 768-778.
/*ref*/Pollack A. New York Times (New York), July 20, 2004: F1.
/*ref*/Mueller HS, Rao PS, Greenberg MA, Buttrick PM, Sussman, II, Levite HA, et al. Systemic and transcardiac platelet activity in acute myocardial infarction in man: resistance to prostacyclin. Circulation 1985; 72: 1336-1345.
/*ref*/Ajani UA, Ford ES, Greenland KJ, Giles WH, Mokdad AH. Aspirin use among U.S. adults: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Am J Prev Med 2006; 30: 74-77.
/*ref*/Campbell CL, Smyth S, Montalescot G, Steinhubl SR. Aspirin dose for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. JAMA 2007; 297: 2018-2024.
/*ref*/Thon JN, Italiano JE. Platelets: production, morphology and ultrastructure. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2012: 3-22.
/*ref*/White JG. Platelet structure. In: Michelson AD, ed. Platelets (ed Third edition). London: Academic Press; 2013: 117-144.
/*ref*/Italiano JE, Hartwig JH. Megakaryocyte development and platelet formation. In: Michelson AD, ed. Platelets (ed Third edition). London: Academic Press; 2013: 27-49.
/*ref*/Clemetson KJ, Clemetson JM. Platelet receptors. In: Michelson AD, ed. Platelets (ed Third edition). London: Academic Press; 2013: 169-194.
/*ref*/Vorchheimer DA, Becker R. Platelets in atherothrombosis. Mayo Clin Proc 2006; 81: 59-68.
/*ref*/Koseoglu S, Meyer AF, Kim D, Meyer BM, Wang Y, Dalluge JJ, et al. Analytical characterization of the role of phospholipids in platelet adhesion and secretion. Anal Chem 2015; 87: 413-421.
/*ref*/Offermanns S. Activation of platelet function through G protein-coupled receptors. Circ Res 2006; 99: 1293-1304.
/*ref*/Li Z, Delaney MK, O'Brien KA, Du X. Signaling during platelet adhesion and activation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010; 30: 2341-2349.
/*ref*/Tselepis AD, Gerotziafas G, Andrikopoulos G, Anninos H, Vardas P. Mechanisms of platelet activation and modification of response to antiplatelet agents. Hellenic J Cardiol 2011; 52: 128-140.
/*ref*/Gurbel PA, Tantry US. Monitoring of antiplatelet therapy. In: Michelson AD, ed. Platelets (ed Third edition). London: Academic Press; 2013: 603-633.
/*ref*/Hoffman M, Monroe DM, 3rd. A cell-based model of hemostasis. Thromb Haemost 2001; 85: 958-965.
/*ref*/Rowland M, Riegelman S, Harris PA, Sholkoff SD. Absorption kinetics of aspirin in man following oral administration of an aqueous solution. J Pharm Sci 1972; 61: 379-385.
/*ref*/Patrono C, Baigent C, Hirsh J, Roth G, American College of Chest P. Antiplatelet drugs: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; 133: 199S-233S.
/*ref*/Hutt AJ, Caldwell J, Smith RL. The metabolism of aspirin in man: a population study. Xenobiotica 1986; 16: 239-249.
/*ref*/Dargan PI, Wallace CI, Jones AL. An evidence based flowchart to guide the management of acute salicylate (aspirin) overdose. Emerg Med J 2002; 19: 206-209.
/*ref*/Roth GJ, Stanford N, Jacobs JW, Majerus PW. Acetylation of prostaglandin synthetase by aspirin. Purification and properties of the acetylated protein from sheep vesicular gland. Biochemistry 1977; 16: 4244-4248.
/*ref*/Roth GJ, Majerus PW. The mechanism of the effect of aspirin on human platelets. I. Acetylation of a particulate fraction protein. J Clin Invest 1975; 56: 624-632.
/*ref*/Roth GJ, Stanford N, Majerus PW. Acetylation of prostaglandin synthase by aspirin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1975; 72: 3073-3076.
/*ref*/Burch JW, Stanford N, Majerus PW. Inhibition of platelet prostaglandin synthetase by oral aspirin. J Clin Invest 1978; 61: 314-319.
/*ref*/Roth GJ, Calverley DC. Aspirin, platelets, and thrombosis: theory and practice. Blood 1994; 83: 885-898.
/*ref*/Patrono C, Bachmann F, Baigent C, Bode C, De Caterina R, Charbonnier B, et al. Expert consensus document on the use of antiplatelet agents. The task force on the use of antiplatelet agents in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease of the European society of cardiology. Eur Heart J 2004; 25: 166-181.
/*ref*/van Pampus EC, Huijgens PC, Zevenbergen A, Twaalfhoven H, van Kamp GJ, Langenhuijsen MM. Influence of aspirin on human megakaryocyte prostaglandin synthesis. Eur J Haematol 1993; 50: 264-268.
/*ref*/Roth GJ, Siok CJ. Acetylation of the NH2-terminal serine of prostaglandin synthetase by aspirin. J Biol Chem 1978; 253: 3782-3784.
/*ref*/Patrono C, Ciabattoni G, Patrignani P, Pugliese F, Filabozzi P, Catella F, et al. Clinical pharmacology of platelet cyclooxygenase inhibition. Circulation 1985; 72: 1177-1184.
/*ref*/Patrono C. Aspirin resistance: definition, mechanisms and clinical read-outs. J Thromb Haemost 2003; 1: 1710-1713.
/*ref*/Michelson AD, Cattaneo M, Eikelboom JW, Gurbel P, Kottke-Marchant K, Kunicki TJ, et al. Aspirin resistance: position paper of the Working Group on Aspirin Resistance. J Thromb Haemost 2005; 3: 1309-1311.
/*ref*/Hankey GJ, Eikelboom JW. Aspirin resistance. Lancet 2006; 367: 606-617.
/*ref*/Vejar M, Hackett D, Brunelli C, Spallarossa P, Ianetti M, Galassi AR, et al. Comparison of low-dose aspirin and coronary vasodilators in acute unstable angina. Circulation 1990; 81: I4-11; discussion I22-13.
/*ref*/Helgason CM, Bolin KM, Hoff JA, Winkler SR, Mangat A, Tortorice KL, et al. Development of aspirin resistance in persons with previous ischemic stroke. Stroke 1994; 25: 2331-2336.
/*ref*/Weber AA, Przytulski B, Schanz A, Hohlfeld T, Schror K. Towards a definition of aspirin resistance: a typological approach. Platelets 2002; 13: 37-40.
/*ref*/De Gaetano G, Cerletti C. Aspirin resistance: a revival of platelet aggregation tests? J Thromb Haemost 2003; 1: 2048-2050.
/*ref*/Mason PJ, Freedman JE, Jacobs AK. Aspirin resistance: current concepts. Rev Cardiovasc Med 2004; 5: 156-163.
/*ref*/Martin CP, Talbert RL. Aspirin resistance: an evaluation of current evidence and measurement methods. Pharmacotherapy 2005; 25: 942-953.
/*ref*/Dhatariya KK. Aspirin for everyone over 50? Don't forget aspirin resistance. BMJ 2005; 331: 161; author reply 161.
/*ref*/Wang TH, Bhatt DL, Topol EJ. Aspirin resistance: an emerging clinical entity. Eur Heart J 2005; 93: 2-8.
/*ref*/Steinhubl SR, Charnigo R, Moliterno DJ. Resistance to antiplatelet resistance is it justified? J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45: 1757-1758.
/*ref*/Michos ED, Ardehali R, Blumenthal RS, Lange RA, Ardehali H. Aspirin and clopidogrel resistance. Mayo Clin Proc 2006; 81: 518-526.
/*ref*/Pamukcu B. A review of aspirin resistance; definition, possible mechanisms, detection with platelet function tests, and its clinical outcomes. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2007; 23: 213-222.
/*ref*/Hovens MM, Snoep JD, Eikenboom JC, van der Bom JG, Mertens BJ, Huisman MV. Prevalence of persistent platelet reactivity despite use of aspirin: a systematic review. Am Heart J 2007; 153: 175-181.
/*ref*/Divani AA, Zantek ND, Borhani-Haghighi A, Rao GH. Antiplatelet therapy: aspirin resistance and all that jazz! Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2013; 19: 5-18.
/*ref*/Li J, Song M, Jian Z, Guo W, Chen G, Jiang G, et al. Laboratory aspirin resistance and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease on confirmed aspirin adherence. J Atheroscler Thromb 2014; 21: 239-247.
/*ref*/Valis M, Krajickova D, Maly J, Maly R, Fatorova I, Vysata O, et al. Aspirin Resistance in Neurovascular Diseases. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 2014; 57: 157-161.
/*ref*/Cai G, Zhou W, Lu Y, Chen P, Lu Z, Fu Y. Aspirin resistance and other aspirin-related concerns. Neurol Sci 2015.
/*ref*/Sudoyo AW. Aspirin resistance and its importance. Acta Med Indones 2015; 47: 87.
/*ref*/Naimo PS, McGiffin D, Konstantinov IE. Aspirin resistance in the era of personalized medicine: Should we not take it personally? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2015; 150: e99-e100.
/*ref*/Cai G, Zhou W, Lu Y, Chen P, Lu Z, Fu Y. Aspirin resistance and other aspirin-related concerns. Neurol Sci 2016; 37: 181-189.
/*ref*/Tantry US, Bliden KP, Gurbel PA. Overestimation of platelet aspirin resistance detection by thrombelastograph platelet mapping and validation by conventional aggregometry using arachidonic acid stimulation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46: 1705-1709.
/*ref*/Sane DC, McKee SA, Malinin AI, Serebruany VL. Frequency of aspirin resistance in patients with congestive heart failure treated with antecedent aspirin. Am J Cardiol 2002; 90: 893-895.
/*ref*/Grotemeyer KH. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid in stroke patients. Evidence of nonresponders in a subpopulation of treated patients. Thromb Res 1991; 63: 587-593.
/*ref*/Grotemeyer KH, Scharafinski HW, Husstedt IW. Two-year follow-up of aspirin responder and aspirin non responder. A pilot-study including 180 post-stroke patients. Thromb Res 1993; 71: 397-403.
/*ref*/Christiaens L, Macchi L, Herpin D, Coisne D, Duplantier C, Allal J, et al. Resistance to aspirin in vitro at rest and during exercise in patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease. Thromb Res 2002; 108: 115-119.
/*ref*/Macchi L, Christiaens L, Brabant S, Sorel N, Allal J, Mauco G, et al. Resistance to aspirin in vitro is associated with increased platelet sensitivity to adenosine diphosphate. Thromb Res 2002; 107: 45-49.
/*ref*/Andersen K, Hurlen M, Arnesen H, Seljeflot I. Aspirin non-responsiveness as measured by PFA-100 in patients with coronary artery disease. Thromb Res 2002; 108: 37-42.
/*ref*/Grundmann K, Jaschonek K, Kleine B, Dichgans J, Topka H. Aspirin non-responder status in patients with recurrent cerebral ischemic attacks. J Neurol 2003; 250: 63-66.
/*ref*/Wang JC, Aucoin-Barry D, Manuelian D, Monbouquette R, Reisman M, Gray W, et al. Incidence of aspirin nonresponsiveness using the Ultegra Rapid Platelet Function Assay-ASA. Am J Cardiol 2003; 92: 1492-1494.
/*ref*/Gurbel PA, Bliden KP, Hiatt BL, O'Connor CM. Clopidogrel for coronary stenting: response variability, drug resistance, and the effect of pretreatment platelet reactivity. Circulation 2003; 107: 2908-2913.
/*ref*/Friend M, Vucenik I, Miller M. Research pointers: Platelet responsiveness to aspirin in patients with hyperlipidaemia. BMJ 2003; 326: 82-83.
/*ref*/Macchi L, Christiaens L, Brabant S, Sorel N, Ragot S, Allal J, et al. Resistance in vitro to low-dose aspirin is associated with platelet PlA1 (GP IIIa) polymorphism but not with C807T(GP Ia/IIa) and C-5T Kozak (GP Ibalpha) polymorphisms. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 42: 1115-1119.
/*ref*/Alberts MJ, Bergman DL, Molner E, Jovanovic BD, Ushiwata I, Teruya J. Antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 2004; 35: 175-178.
/*ref*/Zhang Y, Liang J, Zhou YJ, Yuan H, Zhang YZ, Dong L. [Study on the relationship between aspirin resistance and incidence of myonecrosis after non-emergent percutaneous coronary intervention]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi 2005; 33: 695-699.
/*ref*/Lee PY, Chen WH, Ng W, Cheng X, Kwok JY, Tse HF, et al. Low-dose aspirin increases aspirin resistance in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Med 2005; 118: 723-727.
/*ref*/Borna C, Lazarowski E, van Heusden C, Ohlin H, Erlinge D. Resistance to aspirin is increased by ST-elevation myocardial infarction and correlates with adenosine diphosphate levels. Thromb J 2005; 3: 10.
/*ref*/Hobikoglu GF, Norgaz T, Aksu H, Ozer O, Erturk M, Nurkalem Z, et al. High frequency of aspirin resistance in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Tohoku J Exp Med 2005; 207: 59-64.
/*ref*/Poston RS, Gu J, Brown JM, Gammie JS, White C, Nie L, et al. Endothelial injury and acquired aspirin resistance as promoters of regional thrombin formation and early vein graft failure after coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2006; 131: 122-130.
/*ref*/Crescente M, Di Castelnuovo A, Iacoviello L, Vermylen J, Cerletti C, de Gaetano G. Response variability to aspirin as assessed by the platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100. A systematic review. Thromb Haemost 2008; 99: 14-26.
/*ref*/Raju N, Sobieraj-Teague M, Hirsh J, O'Donnell M, Eikelboom J. Effect of aspirin on mortality in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 2011; 124: 621-629.
/*ref*/Wolff T, Miller T, Ko S. Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events: an update of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2009; 150: 405-410.
/*ref*/Lauer MS. Clinical practice. Aspirin for primary prevention of coronary events. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 1468-1474.
/*ref*/Sacco RL, Kasner SE, Broderick JP, Caplan LR, Connors JJ, Culebras A, et al. An updated definition of stroke for the 21st century: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2013; 44: 2064-2089.
/*ref*/Koton S, Tsabari R, Molshazki N, Kushnir M, Shaien R, Eilam A, et al. Burden and outcome of prevalent ischemic brain disease in a national acute stroke registry. Stroke 2013; 44: 3293-3297.
/*ref*/Klein-Ritter D. An evidence-based review of the AMA/AHA guideline for the primary prevention of ischemic stroke. Geriatrics 2009; 64: 16-20, 28.
/*ref*/Vaartjes I, van Dis I, Grobbee DE, Bots ML. The dynamics of mortality in follow-up time after an acute myocardial infarction, lower extremity arterial disease and ischemic stroke. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2010; 10: 57.
/*ref*/Spence JD. Secondary stroke prevention. Nat Rev Neurol 2010; 6: 477-486.
/*ref*/Furie KL, Kasner SE, Adams RJ, Albers GW, Bush RL, Fagan SC, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the american heart association/american stroke association. Stroke 2011; 42: 227-276.
/*ref*/Hsu LC, Fuh JL. Aspirin resistance and ischemic stroke outcome: fact or fiction? J Chin Med Assoc 2012; 75: 549-550.
/*ref*/Zheng AS, Churilov L, Colley RE, Goh C, Davis SM, Yan B. Association of aspirin resistance with increased stroke severity and infarct size. JAMA Neurol 2013; 70: 208-213.
/*ref*/Kim JT, Heo SH, Lee JS, Choi MJ, Choi KH, Nam TS, et al. Aspirin resistance in the acute stages of acute ischemic stroke is associated with the development of new ischemic lesions. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0120743.
/*ref*/Agayeva N, Topcuoglu MA, Arsava EM. The Interplay between Stroke Severity, Antiplatelet Use, and Aspirin Resistance in Ischemic Stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2016; 25: 397-403.
/*ref*/Oh MS, Yu KH, Lee JH, Jung S, Kim C, Jang MU, et al. Aspirin resistance is associated with increased stroke severity and infarct volume. Neurology 2016.
/*ref*/Duley L, Henderson-Smart D, Knight M, King J. Antiplatelet drugs for prevention of pre-eclampsia and its consequences: systematic review. BMJ 2001; 322: 329-333.
/*ref*/Askie LM, Duley L, Henderson-Smart DJ, Stewart LA, Group PC. Antiplatelet agents for prevention of pre-eclampsia: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet 2007; 369: 1791-1798.
/*ref*/Xu TT, Zhou F, Deng CY, Huang GQ, Li JK, Wang XD. Low-dose aspirin for preventing preeclampsia and its complications: A meta-analysis. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2015; 17: 567-573.
/*ref*/Wojtowicz A, Undas A, Huras H, Musial J, Rytlewski K, Reron A, et al. Aspirin resistance may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2011; 32: 334-339.
/*ref*/Campuzano-Maya G, Escobar-Gallo GE. Síndrome de plaqueta pegajosa. Medicina & Laboratorio 2014; 20: 513-528.
/*ref*/Rac MW, Minns Crawford N, Worley KC. Extensive thrombosis and first-trimester pregnancy loss caused by sticky platelet syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2011; 117: 501-503.
/*ref*/Chen WH, Lee PY, Ng W, Kwok JY, Cheng X, Lee SW, et al. Relation of aspirin resistance to coronary flow reserve in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Cardiol 2005; 96: 760-763.
/*ref*/Christiaens L, Ragot S, Mergy J, Allal J, Macchi L. Major clinical vascular events and aspirin-resistance status as determined by the PFA-100 method among patients with stable coronary artery disease: a prospective study. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2008; 19: 235-239.
/*ref*/Gum PA, Kottke-Marchant K, Poggio ED, Gurm H, Welsh PA, Brooks L, et al. Profile and prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 2001; 88: 230-235.
/*ref*/McKee SA, Sane DC, Deliargyris EN. Aspirin resistance in cardiovascular disease: a review of prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical significance. Thromb Haemost 2002; 88: 711-715.
/*ref*/Eikelboom JW, Hankey GJ. Aspirin resistance: a new independent predictor of vascular events? J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 41: 966-968.
/*ref*/Hankey GJ, Eikelboom JW. Aspirin resistance. BMJ 2004; 328: 477-479.
/*ref*/Needs CJ, Brooks PM. Clinical pharmacokinetics of the salicylates. Clin Pharmacokinet 1985; 10: 164-177.
/*ref*/Catella-Lawson F, Reilly MP, Kapoor SC, Cucchiara AJ, DeMarco S, Tournier B, et al. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1809-1817.
/*ref*/FitzGerald GA. Parsing an enigma: the pharmacodynamics of aspirin resistance. Lancet 2003; 361: 542-544.
/*ref*/Cheema AA. Should people on aspirin avoid Ibuprofen? A review of the literature. Cardiol Rev 2004; 12: 174-176.
/*ref*/MacDonald TM, Wei L. Effect of ibuprofen on cardioprotective effect of aspirin. Lancet 2003; 361: 573-574.
/*ref*/Capone ML, Sciulli MG, Tacconelli S, Grana M, Ricciotti E, Renda G, et al. Pharmacodynamic interaction of naproxen with low-dose aspirin in healthy subjects. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45: 1295-1301.
/*ref*/Williams FM. Clinical significance of esterases in man. Clin Pharmacokinet 1985; 10: 392-403.
/*ref*/Anand BS, Sanduja SK, Lichtenberger LM. Effect of omeprazole on the bioavailability of aspirin: a randomized controlled study on healthy volunteers. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: A371.
/*ref*/Iñarrea P, Esteva F, Cornudella R, Lanas A. Omeprazole does not interfere with the antiplatelet effect of low-dose aspirin in man. Scand J Gastroenterol 2000; 35: 242-246.
/*ref*/González-Conejero R, Rivera J, Corral J, Acuña C, Guerrero JA, Vicente V. Biological assessment of aspirin efficacy on healthy individuals: heterogeneous response or aspirin failure? Stroke 2005; 36: 276-280.
/*ref*/Coma-Canella I, Velasco A, Castano S. Prevalence of aspirin resistance measured by PFA-100. Int J Cardiol 2005; 101: 71-76.
/*ref*/Stejskal D, Vaclavik J, Lacnak B, Proskova J. Aspirin resistance measured by cationic propyl gallate platelet aggregometry and recurrent cardiovascular events during 4 years of follow-up. Eur J Intern Med 2006; 17: 349-354.
/*ref*/Modica A, Karlsson F, Mooe T. Platelet aggregation and aspirin non-responsiveness increase when an acute coronary syndrome is complicated by an infection. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 507-511.
/*ref*/Kahraman G, Sahin T, Kilic T, Baytugan NZ, Agacdiken A, Ural E, et al. The frequency of aspirin resistance and its risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome. Int J Cardiol 2007; 115: 391-396.
/*ref*/Cagirci G, Ozdemir O, Geyik B, Cay S, Ozturk S, Aras D, et al. The prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2009; 37: 461-466.
/*ref*/American Diabetes A. 8. Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Management. Diabetes Care 2016; 39 Suppl 1: S60-71.
/*ref*/Larsson PT, Wallen NH, Hjemdahl P. Norepinephrine-induced human platelet activation in vivo is only partly counteracted by aspirin. Circulation 1994; 89: 1951-1957.
/*ref*/Pamukcu B, Oflaz H, Acar RD, Umman S, Koylan N, Umman B, et al. The role of exercise on platelet aggregation in patients with stable coronary artery disease: exercise induces aspirin resistant platelet activation. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2005; 20: 17-22.
/*ref*/Valles J, Santos MT, Aznar J, Osa A, Lago A, Cosin J, et al. Erythrocyte promotion of platelet reactivity decreases the effectiveness of aspirin as an antithrombotic therapeutic modality: the effect of low-dose aspirin is less than optimal in patients with vascular disease due to prothrombotic effects of erythrocytes on platelet reactivity. Circulation 1998; 97: 350-355.
/*ref*/Karim S, Habib A, Levy-Toledano S, Maclouf J. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 of endothelial cells utilize exogenous or endogenous arachidonic acid for transcellular production of thromboxane. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 12042-12048.
/*ref*/Pawlowski NA, Kaplan G, Hamill AL, Cohn ZA, Scott WA. Arachidonic acid metabolism by human monocytes. Studies with platelet-depleted cultures. J Exp Med 1983; 158: 393-412.
/*ref*/Konieczkowski M, Skrinska VA. Increased synthesis of thromboxane A(2) and expression of procoagulant activity by monocytes in response to arachidonic acid in diabetes mellitus. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2001; 65: 133-138.
/*ref*/Rocca B, Secchiero P, Ciabattoni G, Ranelletti FO, Catani L, Guidotti L, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is induced during human megakaryopoiesis and characterizes newly formed platelets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99: 7634-7639.
/*ref*/Cheng Y, Austin SC, Rocca B, Koller BH, Coffman TM, Grosser T, et al. Role of prostacyclin in the cardiovascular response to thromboxane A2. Science 2002; 296: 539-541.
/*ref*/De Gaetano G, Carriero MR, Cerletti C, Mussoni L. Low dose aspirin does not prevent fibrinolytic response to venous occlusion. Biochem Pharmacol 1986; 35: 3147-3150.
/*ref*/Rao GH, Escolar G, White JG. Epinephrine reverses the inhibitory influence of aspirin on platelet-vessel wall interactions. Thromb Res 1986; 44: 65-74.
/*ref*/Mustonen P, van Willigen G, Lassila R. Epinephrine--via activation of p38-MAPK--abolishes the effect of aspirin on platelet deposition to collagen. Thromb Res 2001; 104: 439-449.
/*ref*/Demiroglu H. Elevated erythrocyte aggregation as a predisposing factor to aspirin resistance. Thromb Haemost 2003; 90: 157.
/*ref*/Di Minno G, Silver MJ, Cerbone AM, Murphy S. Trial of repeated low-dose aspirin in diabetic angiopathy. Blood 1986; 68: 886-891.
/*ref*/Davis JW, Hartman CR, Lewis HD, Jr., Shelton L, Eigenberg DA, Hassanein KM, et al. Cigarette smoking--induced enhancement of platelet function: lack of prevention by aspirin in men with coronary artery disease. J Lab Clin Med 1985; 105: 479-483.
/*ref*/Hung J, Lam JY, Lacoste L, Letchacovski G. Cigarette smoking acutely increases platelet thrombus formation in patients with coronary artery disease taking aspirin. Circulation 1995; 92: 2432-2436.
/*ref*/Morrow JD, Frei B, Longmire AW, Gaziano JM, Lynch SM, Shyr Y, et al. Increase in circulating products of lipid peroxidation (F2-isoprostanes) in smokers. Smoking as a cause of oxidative damage. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 1198-1203.
/*ref*/Reilly M, Delanty N, Lawson JA, FitzGerald GA. Modulation of oxidant stress in vivo in chronic cigarette smokers. Circulation 1996; 94: 19-25.
/*ref*/Weber AA, Liesener S, Schanz A, Hohlfeld T, Schror K. Habitual smoking causes an abnormality in platelet thromboxane A2 metabolism and results in an altered susceptibility to aspirin effects. Platelets 2000; 11: 177-182.
/*ref*/Csiszar A, Stef G, Pacher P, Ungvari Z. Oxidative stress-induced isoprostane formation may contribute to aspirin resistance in platelets. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002; 66: 557-558.
/*ref*/Cipollone F, Ciabattoni G, Patrignani P, Pasquale M, Di Gregorio D, Bucciarelli T, et al. Oxidant stress and aspirin-insensitive thromboxane biosynthesis in severe unstable angina. Circulation 2000; 102: 1007-1013.
/*ref*/Zimmermann N, Kienzle P, Weber AA, Winter J, Gams E, Schror K, et al. Aspirin resistance after coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001; 121: 982-984.
/*ref*/Szczeklik A, Musial J, Undas A, Sanak M, Dropinski J, Tuleja E, et al. Aspirin and thrombinogenesis. Thromb Res 2003; 110: 345-347.
/*ref*/Quick AJ. Salicylates and bleeding: the aspirin tolerance test. Am J Med Sci 1966; 252: 265-269.
/*ref*/De Gaetano G, Cerletti C. Prolongation of bleeding time by aspirin: a dual mechanism? Thromb Res 1988; 50: 907-912.
/*ref*/Floyd CN, Ferro A. Mechanisms of aspirin resistance. Pharmacol Ther 2014; 141: 69-78.
/*ref*/FitzGerald GA, Oates JA, Hawiger J, Maas RL, Roberts LJ, 2nd, Lawson JA, et al. Endogenous biosynthesis of prostacyclin and thromboxane and platelet function during chronic administration of aspirin in man. J Clin Invest 1983; 71: 676-688.
/*ref*/Pulcinelli FM, Pignatelli P, Celestini A, Riondino S, Gazzaniga PP, Violi F. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by aspirin progressively decreases in long-term treated patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 43: 979-984.
/*ref*/Alexander JH, Harrington RA, Tuttle RH, Berdan LG, Lincoff AM, Deckers JW, et al. Prior aspirin use predicts worse outcomes in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. PURSUIT Investigators. Platelet IIb/IIIa in Unstable angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy. Am J Cardiol 1999; 83: 1147-1151.
/*ref*/Santopinto J, Gurfinkel EP, Torres V, Marcos E, Bozovich GE, Mautner B, et al. Prior aspirin users with acute non-ST-elevation coronary syndromes are at increased risk of cardiac events and benefit from enoxaparin. Am Heart J 2001; 141: 566-572.
/*ref*/Hohlfeld T, Weber AA, Junghans U, Schumacher M, Boucher M, Schror K, et al. Variable platelet response to aspirin in patients with ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007; 24: 43-50.
/*ref*/Cambria-Kiely JA, Gandhi PJ. Aspirin resistance and genetic polymorphisms. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2002; 14: 51-58.
/*ref*/Papafili A, Hill MR, Brull DJ, McAnulty RJ, Marshall RP, Humphries SE, et al. Common promoter variant in cyclooxygenase-2 represses gene expression: evidence of role in acute-phase inflammatory response. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002; 22: 1631-1636.
/*ref*/Halushka MK, Walker LP, Halushka PV. Genetic variation in cyclooxygenase 1: effects on response to aspirin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 73: 122-130.
/*ref*/Cooke GE, Bray PF, Hamlington JD, Pham DM, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ. P1A2 polymorphism and efficacy of aspirin. Lancet 1998; 351: 1253.
/*ref*/Szczeklik A, Undas A, Sanak M, Frolow M, Wegrzyn W. Relationship between bleeding time, aspirin and the PlA1/A2 polymorphism of platelet glycoprotein IIIa. Br J Haematol 2000; 110: 965-967.
/*ref*/Undas A, Brummel K, Musial J, Mann KG, Szczeklik A. Pl(A2) polymorphism of beta(3) integrins is associated with enhanced thrombin generation and impaired antithrombotic action of aspirin at the site of microvascular injury. Circulation 2001; 104: 2666-2672.
/*ref*/Kunicki TJ. The influence of platelet collagen receptor polymorphisms in hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002; 22: 14-20.
/*ref*/Undas A, Sydor WJ, Brummel K, Musial J, Mann KG, Szczeklik A. Aspirin alters the cardioprotective effects of the factor XIII Val34Leu polymorphism. Circulation 2003; 107: 17-20.
/*ref*/Gemmati D, Federici F, Campo G, Tognazzo S, Serino ML, De Mattei M, et al. Factor XIIIA-V34L and factor XIIIB-H95R gene variants: effects on survival in myocardial infarction patients. Mol Med 2007; 13: 112-120.
/*ref*/Duke WW. The relation of blood platelets to hemorrhagic disease. Description of a method for determining the bleeding time and coagulation time and report of three cases of hemorrhagic disease relieved by transfusion. JAMA 1910; 55: 1185.
/*ref*/Born GV, Cross MJ. The aggregation of blood platelets. J Physiol 1963; 168: 178-195.
/*ref*/Wu AH, Lewandrowski K, Gronowski AM, Grenache DG, Sokoll LJ, Magnani B. Antiquated tests within the clinical pathology laboratory. Am J Manag Care 2010; 16: e220-227.
/*ref*/Peterson P, Hayes TE, Arkin CF, Bovill EG, Fairweather RB, Rock WA, Jr., et al. The preoperative bleeding time test lacks clinical benefit: College of American Pathologists' and American Society of Clinical Pathologists' position article. Arch Surg 1998; 133: 134-139.
/*ref*/Kunicki TJ, Nugent DJ. Qualitative disorders of platelet function. In: Greer JP, Arber DA, Glader B, List AF, Means RTJ, Paraskevas F, eds. Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013: 1128-1142.
/*ref*/Harrison P, Lordkipanidze M. Clinical test of platelet function. In: Michelson AD, ed. Platelets. London: Academic Press; 2013: 519-557.
/*ref*/Kasotakis G, Pipinos, II, Lynch TG. Current evidence and clinical implications of aspirin resistance. J Vasc Surg 2009; 50: 1500-1510.
/*ref*/Cattaneo M. Aspirin and clopidogrel: efficacy, safety, and the issue of drug resistance. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004; 24: 1980-1987.
/*ref*/Azam SM, Jozic J. Variable platelet responsiveness to aspirin and clopidogrel: role of platelet function and genetic polymorphism testing. Transl Res 2009; 154: 309-313.
/*ref*/Harrison P, Frelinger AL, 3rd, Furman MI, Michelson AD. Measuring antiplatelet drug effects in the laboratory. Thromb Res 2007; 120: 323-336.
/*ref*/Ben-Dor I, Kleiman NS, Lev E. Assessment, mechanisms, and clinical implication of variability in platelet response to aspirin and clopidogrel therapy. Am J Cardiol 2009; 104: 227-233.
/*ref*/Campuzano-Maya G. PFA-100: una nueva prueba de función plaquetaria sustituta del tiempo de sangría. Medicina & Laboratorio 2013; 19: 411-448.
/*ref*/Guevara-Arismendy NM, Escobar-Gallo GE, Campuzano-Maya G. Utilidad clínica de la agregregometría plaquetaria. Medicina & Laboratorio 2012; 18: 311-332.
/*ref*/Cattaneo M. Are the bleeding time and PFA-100 useful in the initial screening of patients with mucocutaneous bleedings of hereditary nature? J Thromb Haemost 2004; 2: 890-891.
/*ref*/Campuzano-Maya G. Del hemograma manual al hemograma de cuarta generación. Medicina & Laboratorio 2007; 13: 551-550.
/*ref*/Marques MB, Anastasi J, Ashwood E, Baron B, Fitzgerald R, Fung M, et al. The clinical pathologist as consultant. Am J Clin Pathol 2011; 135: 11-12.
/*ref*/Harrison P. Progress in the assessment of platelet function. Br J Haematol 2000; 111: 733-744.
/*ref*/Michelson AD. Platelet function testing in cardiovascular diseases. Circulation 2004; 110: e489-493.
/*ref*/Craft RM, Chavez JJ, Bresee SJ, Wortham DC, Cohen E, Carroll RC. A novel modification of the Thrombelastograph assay, isolating platelet function, correlates with optical platelet aggregation. J Lab Clin Med 2004; 143: 301-309.
/*ref*/Harrison P, Segal H, Blasbery K, Furtado C, Silver L, Rothwell PM. Screening for aspirin responsiveness after transient ischemic attack and stroke: comparison of 2 point-of-care platelet function tests with optical aggregometry. Stroke 2005; 36: 1001-1005.
/*ref*/Lordkipanidze M, Pharand C, Schampaert E, Turgeon J, Palisaitis DA, Diodati JG. A comparison of six major platelet function tests to determine the prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 2007; 28: 1702-1708.
/*ref*/Cattaneo M, Cerletti C, Harrison P, Hayward CP, Kenny D, Nugent D, et al. Recommendations for the Standardization of Light Transmission Aggregometry: A Consensus of the Working Party from the Platelet Physiology Subcommittee of SSC/ISTH. J Thromb Haemost 2013.
/*ref*/Paniccia R, Priora R, Liotta AA, Abbate R. Platelet function tests: a comparative review. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2015; 11: 133-148.
/*ref*/Hirsh J, Fuster V, Ansell J, Halperin JL, American Heart A, American College of Cardiology F. American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation guide to warfarin therapy. Circulation 2003; 107: 1692-1711.
/*ref*/Snoep JD, Hovens MM, Eikenboom JC, van der Bom JG, Huisman MV. Association of laboratory-defined aspirin resistance with a higher risk of recurrent cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 1593-1599.
/*ref*/Krasopoulos G, Brister SJ, Beattie WS, Buchanan MR. Aspirin "resistance" and risk of cardiovascular morbidity: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2008; 336: 195-198.
/*ref*/Dawson J, Quinn T, Rafferty M, Higgins P, Ray G, Lees KR, et al. Aspirin resistance and compliance with therapy. Cardiovasc Ther 2011; 29: 301-307.
/*ref*/Tarján J, Salamón A, Jager R, Poor F, Barczi V, Dinnyes J, et al. [The rate of acetylsalicylic acid non-respondents among patients hospitalized for acute coronary disease, previously undergoing secondary salicylic acid prophylaxis]. Orv Hetil 1999; 140: 2339-2343.
/*ref*/Schwartz KA. Aspirin resistance: a review of diagnostic methodology, mechanisms, and clinical utility. Adv Clin Chem 2006; 42: 81-110.
/*ref*/Cotter G, Shemesh E, Zehavi M, Dinur I, Rudnick A, Milo O, et al. Lack of aspirin effect: aspirin resistance or resistance to taking aspirin? Am Heart J 2004; 147: 293-300.
/*ref*/Antithrombotic Trialists Collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ 2002; 324: 71-86.
/*ref*/Tohgi H, Konno S, Tamura K, Kimura B, Kawano K. Effects of low-to-high doses of aspirin on platelet aggregability and metabolites of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin. Stroke 1992; 23: 1400-1403.
/*ref*/Helgason CM, Tortorice KL, Winkler SR, Penney DW, Schuler JJ, McClelland TJ, et al. Aspirin response and failure in cerebral infarction. Stroke 1993; 24: 345-350.
/*ref*/Patrono C, Coller B, FitzGerald GA, Hirsh J, Roth G. Platelet-active drugs: the relationships among dose, effectiveness, and side effects: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest 2004; 126: 234S-264S.
/*ref*/Reny JL, De Moerloose P, Dauzat M, Fontana P. Use of the PFA-100 closure time to predict cardiovascular events in aspirin-treated cardiovascular patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thromb Haemost 2008; 6: 444-450.
/*ref*/Müller I, Besta F, Schulz C, Massberg S, Schonig A, Gawaz M. Prevalence of clopidogrel non-responders among patients with stable angina pectoris scheduled for elective coronary stent placement. Thromb Haemost 2003; 89: 783-787.
/*ref*/Matetzky S, Shenkman B, Guetta V, Shechter M, Beinart R, Goldenberg I, et al. Clopidogrel resistance is associated with increased risk of recurrent atherothrombotic events in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 2004; 109: 3171-3175.
/*ref*/Lev EI, Patel RT, Maresh KJ, Guthikonda S, Granada J, DeLao T, et al. Aspirin and clopidogrel drug response in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the role of dual drug resistance. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 47: 27-33.
/*ref*/Xanthopoulou I, Stavrou EF, Kassimis G, Goudas P, Alexopoulos D. Resistance to high-maintenance dose of prasugrel treated by ticagrelor: a case report. Platelets 2013; 24: 239-241.
/*ref*/Tapp L, Shantsila E, Lip GY. Role of ticagrelor in clopidogrel nonresponders: resistance is futile? Circulation 2010; 121: 1169-1171.
/*ref*/Samos M, Fedor M, Kovar F, Duraj L, Stanciakova L, Galajda P, et al. Ticagrelor: a safe and effective approach for overcoming clopidogrel resistance in patients with stent thrombosis? Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2016; 27: 117-120.

Contact Us

The PKP Index is an initiative of the Public Knowledge Project.

For PKP Publishing Services please use the PKP|PS contact form.

For support with PKP software we encourage users to consult our wiki for documentation and search our support forums.

For any other correspondence feel free to contact us using the PKP contact form.

Find Us


Copyright © 2015-2018 Simon Fraser University Library